For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphere

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphereIgor Stomakhin / Strana.ru The Tver Region. Tver. Monument to Afanasy Nikitin

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphere

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphere

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphere

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphere

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphere

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphere

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphere

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphere

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphere

Afanasiy Nikitin

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphere

Tver region. Tver. Monument to Athanasius Nikitin. Photo: Igor Stomakhin / Strana.ru

The Tver merchant Afanasy Nikitin is considered, if not the first, then one of the first Europeans to reach India. And not only in this he is the first. Nikitin is the first Russian "commercial traveler" known to us – a business tourist, as they would say today, unlike pilgrims or discoverers who conquered new lands. The first Russian author of the travelogue – "Walking for the Three Seas". Finally, the first Russian, keen on Indian culture, in which he plunged into place.

Afanasy Nikitin is also one of the most mysterious travelers. We know his book, but about him, in fact, we know almost nothing, except the travel routes. When and where he was born, it is not known. It was only a year of death – 1475. "Nikitin" is not even a surname, but a patronymic: the son of a peasant Nikita. The status of the "Tver merchant" is also in question – for a poor merchant Athanasius seems to be too educated a man of broad views and high connections. He traveled on a journey with the blessing of the great Tver prince Mikhail Borisovich, the Tver governor and Tver Bishop Gennady. There is a conspiracy thesis: if Afanasy was a kind of secret agent sent to search for the legendary diamonds of Golconda to replenish the treasury. Allegedly for this reason he continued the way even after his caravan was plundered by robbers, and the satellites withdrew from the distance. However, a more mundane version says that the engine of adventurism was the banal debts and the hope of gaining wealth.

The route of Nikitin is more or less clear. In the spring of 1468, he and his companions on two ships left Tver, heading for the Caspian Sea. This is the first of the "three seas". The Volga reached Nizhny Novgorod, then to Kazan, Saratov, Old and New Saray, sailed to Astrakhan. Under Astrakhan they were attacked by local bandits, who first seized one ship with goods, then another. They released the looted merchants, barring their way back. "And we went, weeping, on two ships to Derbent."

Tver region. Tver. Mosaic of the artist A.I. Golubtsova, dedicated to Athanasius Nikitin. A source:

On the way to Derbent, Nikitin’s companions did not escape the future Makhachkala – the ancient city of Tarki (now it is part of the capital of Dagestan). There, a storm broke one of the ships, and the travelers were again captured. From Derbent, already alone, Nikitin moved to Baku, from there to Iran, to the cities that he lists in his notes: Chapakur, Sari, Amol, Demavend, Ray, Kashan, Nain, Yazd, Sirjan, Tarom, Lar, Ormuz. Of the values ​​he had only a thoroughbred horse, which he hoped to profitably sell in India (profitably did not work). At the same time the son of the peasant Nikita spoke Farsi, Arabic and several Turkic languages, knew astronomy well, and could write well. In addition, he repeatedly emphasizes his firmness in the faith – in Islam Athanasius did not pass, although this would be an easy way out for a traveler in the East. I was very bored on Christian holidays and "books".

After the city, "Ormuz New, on the island lying", the Indian Sea began, the second of three. Ormuz was a large port in the Persian Gulf, from where Nikitin sailed to India – a quarter of a century before the Portuguese Vasco da Gama, officially opened the sea route to it for Europeans. Impressions from India were contradictory: Athanasius found it interesting, but – current tourists will be surprised – ruinously expensive for living.

Republic of Crimea. Theodosius. Monument to Athanasius Nikitin. Source: livejournal.com

Black Sea became the third sea. According to him, Nikitin finally sailed towards his homeland, having reached India via Persia to Turkish Trebizond. The next point was Theodosius. More precisely, the Genoa Kafa. Not everyone knows that this is the second after Afanasy Nikitin city, where there is also a monument to him.

Before his native Tver, and even before the actual Rus, he did not get there, he died en route to the territory of the principality of Lithuania, near Smolensk. The Moscow merchants, who were his companions, did not let Nikitin’s trip notes – brought them to Moscow, and "Khozhdenie" literally got caught in the annals. That reinforces the vivid theory of a complex merchant-agent under cover …

Surprisingly, today in Russia there is no museum Afanasy Nikitin. Although this fact can be understood – too mysterious character, too little is known about him. There are monuments in Feodosia and the echo of Tver monument. Afanasy Nikitin is a symbol of a city that did not forget his countryman even when he was hiding under the party nickname "Kalinin".

Alexander Pushkin

"Our everything", of course, could not fail to become a model for a Russian traveler as well – a little writer (not counting the same Nikitin) wound so many miles along the roads. This time the roads were purely domestic with a short exit to the land of Turkey, in Arzrum. Alexander Sergeevich Pushkin – the only person from his circle – all his life was "not allowed to travel abroad". Most of his travels were made either by a state order or by official need. That did not stop to create a whole body of great road poetry, and now any person who reads in Russian, from childhood, imagines the winter road, the coachman’s songs, the ringing of the bell, the swirling of demons in blizzards, and the eternal longing of the traveler around the house.

For three seas, around the world and in the stratospherePskov region. The Mikhailovsky Museum-Reserve. Press service of the museum /

The first journey of Pushkin, except for children’s trips to the grandmother’s estate Zakharovo, was the traditional transfer between the capitals, from Moscow to St. Petersburg, to the Tsarskoe Selo Lyceum. At the end of the Lyceum, the young poet went to the Mikhailovskoye family’s estate, but a serious adult voyage began a little later and not on his own. Pushkin’s "outrageous poems" were sent to the "half-link" to the south – "the floor", because formally it was an appointment for civil service in the Chisinau office, and later in Odessa. This was a mild punishment in comparison with the original intention to send him to the Solovetsky Monastery or to Siberia.

The points of the Pushkin routes of 1820-24 are Petersburg, Ekaterinoslav, Taganrog, Aksai, Novocherkassk, Georgievsk, Konstantinovsk, Pyatigorsk, Zheleznovodsk, Kislovodsk, Taman, Kerch, Feodosia, Gurzuf, Bakhchisaray, Simferopol, Chisinau, Kamenka, Kiev, Tulchin, Ackerman, Odessa, Izmail, Nikolaev, Elisavetgrad, Kremenchuk, Chernigov, Mogilev, Vitebsk … Pushkin was bored, made acquaintances, including with future Decembrists, fell in love, saw authentic traces of antiquity, imagined himself Ovid in exile and joined the Masonic lodge "Ovid" met the dawn at sea board the ship, he rushed to the capital – and, of course, wrote poetry. Internal freedom could not be limited, and new impressions gave food to the mind and imagination. So from the "rusty iron tube" of the broken fountain of the khan’s palace in Bakhchisaray was born the "Bakhchisarai fountain".

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphereRepublic of Crimea. Bakhchisaray. Bakhchsarai Palace Museum. Photo: Eugene Ptushka / Strana.ru

In 1824, the "half-link" was replaced by dismissal from the service and this reference, since the censorship uncovered Pushkin’s letter about "atheistic sentiments". He was sent to Mikhailovskoe under the supervision of his father. For two years Pushkin was confined to the neighborhood of the estate and dreamed of escaping from there by any means. The sharpening (also very fruitful) ended in 1926, when the new emperor Nicholas I summoned Pushkin to Moscow.

The second great journey of Pushkin is an expedition to the Caucasus and Turkey, together with the active army. He went there, for the first time, after wooing Natalia Goncharova and receiving a refusal. From this trip there was one more great "travelogue" – "Journey to Arzrum".

The next wide route in the early 1830s was connected with the collection of materials for the "History of the Pugachev Riot" and "The Captain’s Daughter". The journey through Pugachev’s places led Pushkin to Nizhny Novgorod, Kazan, Simbirsk, Lazykovo, Orenburg and Uralsk (the former Yaitsk town). The immersion in the material was complete: back home, to Boldino, he was leaving the same road that was taking the captive Pugachev.

For three seas, around the world and in the stratospherePskov region. Museum-Reserve A.S. Pushkin’s Mikhailovsky. Photo: Pavel Pelevin / Strana.ru

Since Pushkin documented his life in letters, they help to compile a "manual" for a Russian tourist of the first half of the 19th century. Firstly, having no own crew, A.S. all his life he traveled by public transport, that is, "on postal". In summer, for the broken Russian roads, the cart was best suited, in the winter – a kibitka, that is, a sleigh with a semicircular covered top. The stagecoach, which was fired between Moscow and Petersburg, Pushkin found experimentally unbearably slow and uncomfortable in organizing the movement. Naturally, he had to get injured on the way, when coachmen "overturned" him, and lay down at the postal station. A significant problem was the food of the traveler: often there was simply no food, and the owners were persuaded by the "fast day", or it was of terrible quality – with cockroaches, etc. Therefore, good institutions were awarded poetry recommendations, which we still remember – for example, about "Galiani or Kolioni" with their cutlets in Tver.

A vivid description of the road burdens is a half-joking response to his wife in October 1832, when she was jealous of A.S. because of the delay in the letter: "A Russian man on the road does not change clothes and, having reached the pig’s place, goes to the bathhouse, which is our second mother. Are you not baptized, that you do not know all this? "

The best and most atmospheric museum of Pushkin’s traveler is the Museum of his hero, that is, the Station-master in Võre. There you can see and pre-empt all the realities of the old Russian road – and transport, and stops on the way, and the living conditions of the passenger or coachman.

Yakov Sannikov

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphereShot from the film "The Land of Sannikov." Directed by Albert Mkrtchan, Leonid Popov. Mosfilm Studios, 1973

The merchant Sannikov may not have been a particularly outstanding traveler in terms of wanderings. But he gave us an exciting geographical legend, and with it – a song for all time that everything in this world is ghostly. The fate of Sannikov and his discovery, in general, confirms this.

About the merchant Sannikov, we again know a little. He was born in 1780 in Ust-Yanske (Yakutia), was engaged in the extraction of furs and mammoth bones, which was abundant in permafrost, and they were valued at least as much as Arctic fox. Apparently, he was attracted to solitary travels in the Far North, and he overcame the polar expanses even in winter alone. Sannikov was the first to reach the Stolbovoi Islands, Faddeevsky and Novaya Sibir and returned safely, having obtained from the government the preemptive right to collect mammoth bones on these islands.

In 1809 he became the foreman of the artel of industrialists, that is hunters, as part of the expedition of Matvey Gedenstrom, who explored the Novosibirsk Islands. In March of the same year, industrialists on dog sleds crossed the island of New Siberia from the south to the north, and there, from the northern shore, Sannikov discerned in the distance to the northeast a kind of condensation of blue. The "blue" for him was what foreshadowed the discovery of a new land among the polar sea. However, when the members of the expedition moved towards the "blue", there were found only ice mountains, usual for the polar sea.

But Sannikov was sure that in the north lies the undiscovered land. In the autumn of 1810, he found on the north-western shore of Kotelny Island, he again saw far away in the north, not just the blue, but the stone mountains. The head of the expedition had no reason to doubt the sight and instincts of Sannikov, and the alleged island was designated on the map as "the land seen by Sannikov". The third time Sannikov saw his "land" in the north another year later, when he was with his son on the island of Faddeevsky. The location of the ghost island was shifting, as if there were several or one of the islands moving around.

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphereIgor Stomakhin / Strana.ru The Tver Region. Tver. Monument to Afanasy Nikitin

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphere

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphere

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphere

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphere

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphere

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphere

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphere

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphere

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphere

Afanasiy Nikitin

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphereTver region. Tver. Monument to Athanasius Nikitin. Photo: Igor Stomakhin / Strana.ru

The Tver merchant Afanasy Nikitin is considered, if not the first, then one of the first Europeans to reach India. And not only in this he is the first. Nikitin is the first Russian "commercial traveler" known to us – a business tourist, as they would say today, unlike pilgrims or discoverers who conquered new lands. The first Russian author of the travelogue – "Walking for the Three Seas". Finally, the first Russian, keen on Indian culture, in which he plunged into place.

Afanasy Nikitin is also one of the most mysterious travelers. We know his book, but about him, in fact, we know almost nothing, except the travel routes. When and where he was born, it is not known. It was only a year of death – 1475. "Nikitin" is not even a surname, but a patronymic: the son of a peasant Nikita. The status of the "Tver merchant" is also in question – for a poor merchant Athanasius seems to be too educated a man of broad views and high connections. He traveled on a journey with the blessing of the great Tver prince Mikhail Borisovich, the Tver governor and Tver Bishop Gennady. There is a conspiracy thesis: if Afanasy was a kind of secret agent sent to search for the legendary diamonds of Golconda to replenish the treasury. Allegedly for this reason he continued the way even after his caravan was plundered by robbers, and the satellites withdrew from the distance. However, a more mundane version says that the engine of adventurism was the banal debts and the hope of gaining wealth.

The route of Nikitin is more or less clear. In the spring of 1468, he and his companions on two ships left Tver, heading for the Caspian Sea. This is the first of the "three seas". The Volga reached Nizhny Novgorod, then to Kazan, Saratov, Old and New Saray, sailed to Astrakhan. Under Astrakhan they were attacked by local bandits, who first seized one ship with goods, then another. They released the looted merchants, barring their way back. "And we went, weeping, on two ships to Derbent."

Tver region. Tver. Mosaic of the artist A.I. Golubtsova, dedicated to Athanasius Nikitin. A source:

On the way to Derbent, Nikitin’s companions did not escape the future Makhachkala – the ancient city of Tarki (now it is part of the capital of Dagestan). There, a storm broke one of the ships, and the travelers were again captured. From Derbent, already alone, Nikitin moved to Baku, from there to Iran, to the cities that he lists in his notes: Chapakur, Sari, Amol, Demavend, Ray, Kashan, Nain, Yazd, Sirjan, Tarom, Lar, Ormuz. Of the values ​​he had only a thoroughbred horse, which he hoped to profitably sell in India (profitably did not work). At the same time the son of the peasant Nikita spoke Farsi, Arabic and several Turkic languages, knew astronomy well, and could write well. In addition, he repeatedly emphasizes his firmness in the faith – in Islam Athanasius did not pass, although this would be an easy way out for a traveler in the East. I was very bored on Christian holidays and "books".

After the city, "Ormuz New, on the island lying", the Indian Sea began, the second of three. Ormuz was a large port in the Persian Gulf, from where Nikitin sailed to India – a quarter of a century before the Portuguese Vasco da Gama, officially opened the sea route to it for Europeans. Impressions from India were contradictory: Athanasius found it interesting, but – current tourists will be surprised – ruinously expensive for living.

Republic of Crimea. Theodosius. Monument to Athanasius Nikitin. Source: livejournal.com

Black Sea became the third sea. According to him, Nikitin finally sailed towards his homeland, having reached India via Persia to Turkish Trebizond. The next point was Theodosius. More precisely, the Genoa Kafa. Not everyone knows that this is the second after Afanasy Nikitin city, where there is also a monument to him.

Before his native Tver, and even before the actual Rus, he did not get there, he died en route to the territory of the principality of Lithuania, near Smolensk. The Moscow merchants, who were his companions, did not let Nikitin’s trip notes – brought them to Moscow, and "Khozhdenie" literally got caught in the annals. That reinforces the vivid theory of a complex merchant-agent under cover …

Surprisingly, today in Russia there is no museum Afanasy Nikitin. Although this fact can be understood – too mysterious character, too little is known about him. There are monuments in Feodosia and the echo of Tver monument. Afanasy Nikitin is a symbol of a city that did not forget his countryman even when he was hiding under the party nickname "Kalinin".

Alexander Pushkin

"Our everything", of course, could not fail to become a model for a Russian traveler as well – a little writer (not counting the same Nikitin) wound so many miles along the roads. This time the roads were purely domestic with a short exit to the land of Turkey, in Arzrum. Alexander Sergeevich Pushkin – the only person from his circle – all his life was "not allowed to travel abroad". Most of his travels were made either by a state order or by official need. That did not stop to create a whole body of great road poetry, and now any person who reads in Russian, from childhood, imagines the winter road, the coachman’s songs, the ringing of the bell, the swirling of demons in blizzards, and the eternal longing of the traveler around the house.

For three seas, around the world and in the stratospherePskov region. The Mikhailovsky Museum-Reserve. Press service of the museum /

The first journey of Pushkin, except for children’s trips to the grandmother’s estate Zakharovo, was the traditional transfer between the capitals, from Moscow to St. Petersburg, to the Tsarskoe Selo Lyceum. At the end of the Lyceum, the young poet went to the Mikhailovskoye family’s estate, but a serious adult voyage began a little later and not on his own. Pushkin’s "outrageous poems" were sent to the "half-link" to the south – "the floor", because formally it was an appointment for civil service in the Chisinau office, and later in Odessa. This was a mild punishment in comparison with the original intention to send him to the Solovetsky Monastery or to Siberia.

The points of the Pushkin routes of 1820-24 are Petersburg, Ekaterinoslav, Taganrog, Aksai, Novocherkassk, Georgievsk, Konstantinovsk, Pyatigorsk, Zheleznovodsk, Kislovodsk, Taman, Kerch, Feodosia, Gurzuf, Bakhchisaray, Simferopol, Chisinau, Kamenka, Kiev, Tulchin, Ackerman, Odessa, Izmail, Nikolaev, Elisavetgrad, Kremenchuk, Chernigov, Mogilev, Vitebsk … Pushkin was bored, made acquaintances, including with future Decembrists, fell in love, saw authentic traces of antiquity, imagined himself Ovid in exile and joined the Masonic lodge "Ovid" met the dawn at sea board the ship, he rushed to the capital – and, of course, wrote poetry. Internal freedom could not be limited, and new impressions gave food to the mind and imagination. So from the "rusty iron tube" of the broken fountain of the khan’s palace in Bakhchisaray was born the "Bakhchisarai fountain".

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphereRepublic of Crimea. Bakhchisaray. Bakhchsarai Palace Museum. Photo: Eugene Ptushka / Strana.ru

In 1824, the "half-link" was replaced by dismissal from the service and this reference, since the censorship uncovered Pushkin’s letter about "atheistic sentiments". He was sent to Mikhailovskoe under the supervision of his father. For two years Pushkin was confined to the neighborhood of the estate and dreamed of escaping from there by any means. The sharpening (also very fruitful) ended in 1926, when the new emperor Nicholas I summoned Pushkin to Moscow.

The second great journey of Pushkin is an expedition to the Caucasus and Turkey, together with the active army. He went there, for the first time, after wooing Natalia Goncharova and receiving a refusal. From this trip there was one more great "travelogue" – "Journey to Arzrum".

The next wide route in the early 1830s was connected with the collection of materials for the "History of the Pugachev Riot" and "The Captain’s Daughter". The journey through Pugachev’s places led Pushkin to Nizhny Novgorod, Kazan, Simbirsk, Lazykovo, Orenburg and Uralsk (the former Yaitsk town). The immersion in the material was complete: back home, to Boldino, he was leaving the same road that was taking the captive Pugachev.

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphere

Pskov region. Museum-Reserve A.S. Pushkin’s Mikhailovsky. Photo: Pavel Pelevin / Strana.ru

Since Pushkin documented his life in letters, they help to compile a "manual" for a Russian tourist of the first half of the 19th century. Firstly, having no own crew, A.S. all his life he traveled by public transport, that is, "on postal". In summer, for the broken Russian roads, the cart was best suited, in the winter – a kibitka, that is, a sleigh with a semicircular covered top. The stagecoach, which was fired between Moscow and Petersburg, Pushkin found experimentally unbearably slow and uncomfortable in organizing the movement. Naturally, he had to get injured on the way, when coachmen "overturned" him, and lay down at the postal station. A significant problem was the food of the traveler: often there was simply no food, and the owners were persuaded by the "fast day", or it was of terrible quality – with cockroaches, etc. Therefore, good institutions were awarded poetry recommendations, which we still remember – for example, about "Galiani or Kolioni" with their cutlets in Tver.

A vivid description of the road burdens is a half-joking response to his wife in October 1832, when she was jealous of A.S. because of the delay in the letter: "A Russian man on the road does not change clothes and, having reached the pig’s place, goes to the bathhouse, which is our second mother. Are you not baptized, that you do not know all this? "

The best and most atmospheric museum of Pushkin’s traveler is the Museum of his hero, that is, the Station-master in Võre. There you can see and pre-empt all the realities of the old Russian road – and transport, and stops on the way, and the living conditions of the passenger or coachman.

Yakov Sannikov

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphereShot from the film "The Land of Sannikov." Directed by Albert Mkrtchan, Leonid Popov. Mosfilm Studios, 1973

The merchant Sannikov may not have been a particularly outstanding traveler in terms of wanderings. But he gave us an exciting geographical legend, and with it – a song for all time that everything in this world is ghostly. The fate of Sannikov and his discovery, in general, confirms this.

About the merchant Sannikov, we again know a little. He was born in 1780 in Ust-Yanske (Yakutia), was engaged in the extraction of furs and mammoth bones, which was abundant in permafrost, and they were valued at least as much as Arctic fox. Apparently, he was attracted to solitary travels in the Far North, and he overcame the polar expanses even in winter alone. Sannikov was the first to reach the Stolbovoi Islands, Faddeevsky and Novaya Sibir and returned safely, having obtained from the government the preemptive right to collect mammoth bones on these islands.

In 1809 he became the foreman of the artel of industrialists, that is hunters, as part of the expedition of Matvey Gedenstrom, who explored the Novosibirsk Islands. In March of the same year, industrialists on dog sleds crossed the island of New Siberia from the south to the north, and there, from the northern shore, Sannikov discerned in the distance to the northeast a kind of condensation of blue. The "blue" for him was what foreshadowed the discovery of a new land among the polar sea. However, when the members of the expedition moved towards the "blue", there were found only ice mountains, usual for the polar sea.

But Sannikov was sure that in the north lies the undiscovered land. In the autumn of 1810, he found on the north-western shore of Kotelny Island, he again saw far away in the north, not just the blue, but the stone mountains. The head of the expedition had no reason to doubt the sight and instincts of Sannikov, and the alleged island was designated on the map as "the land seen by Sannikov". The third time Sannikov saw his "land" in the north another year later, when he was with his son on the island of Faddeevsky. The location of the ghost island was shifting, as if there were several or one of the islands moving around.

The search for Sannikov’s land was based on the conviction of the 19th century that the polar seas hide the Arctic continent. The earth was searched for more than a hundred years, and the point in search was set only in 1937, when the Soviet icebreaker Sadko explored the whole area where the earth was being searched, and the Arctic aviation confirmed the sailors’ conclusions – there is no land among the ice. This does not mean that it seemed to Sannikom. Most likely, he really saw, but not stone mountains, and rocks on an island of fossil ice. Such islands move and disappear.

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphere

Igor Stomakhin / Strana.ru The Tver Region. Tver. Monument to Afanasy Nikitin

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphere

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphere

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphere

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphere

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphere

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphere

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphere

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphere

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphere

Afanasiy Nikitin

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphereTver region. Tver. Monument to Athanasius Nikitin. Photo: Igor Stomakhin / Strana.ru

The Tver merchant Afanasy Nikitin is considered, if not the first, then one of the first Europeans to reach India. And not only in this he is the first. Nikitin is the first Russian "commercial traveler" known to us – a business tourist, as they would say today, unlike pilgrims or discoverers who conquered new lands. The first Russian author of the travelogue – "Walking for the Three Seas". Finally, the first Russian, keen on Indian culture, in which he plunged into place.

Afanasy Nikitin is also one of the most mysterious travelers. We know his book, but about him, in fact, we know almost nothing, except the travel routes. When and where he was born, it is not known. It was only a year of death – 1475. "Nikitin" is not even a surname, but a patronymic: the son of a peasant Nikita. The status of the "Tver merchant" is also in question – for a poor merchant Athanasius seems to be too educated a man of broad views and high connections. He traveled on a journey with the blessing of the great Tver prince Mikhail Borisovich, the Tver governor and Tver Bishop Gennady. There is a conspiracy thesis: if Afanasy was a kind of secret agent sent to search for the legendary diamonds of Golconda to replenish the treasury. Allegedly for this reason he continued the way even after his caravan was plundered by robbers, and the satellites withdrew from the distance. However, a more mundane version says that the engine of adventurism was the banal debts and the hope of gaining wealth.

The route of Nikitin is more or less clear. In the spring of 1468, he and his companions on two ships left Tver, heading for the Caspian Sea. This is the first of the "three seas". The Volga reached Nizhny Novgorod, then to Kazan, Saratov, Old and New Saray, sailed to Astrakhan. Under Astrakhan they were attacked by local bandits, who first seized one ship with goods, then another. They released the looted merchants, barring their way back. "And we went, weeping, on two ships to Derbent."

Tver region. Tver. Mosaic of the artist A.I. Golubtsova, dedicated to Athanasius Nikitin. A source:

On the way to Derbent, Nikitin’s companions did not escape the future Makhachkala – the ancient city of Tarki (now it is part of the capital of Dagestan). There, a storm broke one of the ships, and the travelers were again captured. From Derbent, already alone, Nikitin moved to Baku, from there to Iran, to the cities that he lists in his notes: Chapakur, Sari, Amol, Demavend, Ray, Kashan, Nain, Yazd, Sirjan, Tarom, Lar, Ormuz. Of the values ​​he had only a thoroughbred horse, which he hoped to profitably sell in India (profitably did not work). At the same time the son of the peasant Nikita spoke Farsi, Arabic and several Turkic languages, knew astronomy well, and could write well. In addition, he repeatedly emphasizes his firmness in the faith – in Islam Athanasius did not pass, although this would be an easy way out for a traveler in the East. I was very bored on Christian holidays and "books".

After the city, "Ormuz New, on the island lying", the Indian Sea began, the second of three. Ormuz was a large port in the Persian Gulf, from where Nikitin sailed to India – a quarter of a century before the Portuguese Vasco da Gama, officially opened the sea route to it for Europeans. Impressions from India were contradictory: Athanasius found it interesting, but – current tourists will be surprised – ruinously expensive for living.

Republic of Crimea. Theodosius. Monument to Athanasius Nikitin. Source: livejournal.com

Black Sea became the third sea. According to him, Nikitin finally sailed towards his homeland, having reached India via Persia to Turkish Trebizond. The next point was Theodosius. More precisely, the Genoa Kafa. Not everyone knows that this is the second after Afanasy Nikitin city, where there is also a monument to him.

Before his native Tver, and even before the actual Rus, he did not get there, he died en route to the territory of the principality of Lithuania, near Smolensk. The Moscow merchants, who were his companions, did not let Nikitin’s trip notes – brought them to Moscow, and "Khozhdenie" literally got caught in the annals. That reinforces the vivid theory of a complex merchant-agent under cover …

Surprisingly, today in Russia there is no museum Afanasy Nikitin. Although this fact can be understood – too mysterious character, too little is known about him. There are monuments in Feodosia and the echo of Tver monument. Afanasy Nikitin is a symbol of a city that did not forget his countryman even when he was hiding under the party nickname "Kalinin".

Alexander Pushkin

"Our everything", of course, could not fail to become a model for a Russian traveler as well – a little writer (not counting the same Nikitin) wound so many miles along the roads. This time the roads were purely domestic with a short exit to the land of Turkey, in Arzrum. Alexander Sergeevich Pushkin – the only person from his circle – all his life was "not allowed to travel abroad". Most of his travels were made either by a state order or by official need. That did not stop to create a whole body of great road poetry, and now any person who reads in Russian, from childhood, imagines the winter road, the coachman’s songs, the ringing of the bell, the swirling of demons in blizzards, and the eternal longing of the traveler around the house.

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphere

Pskov region. The Mikhailovsky Museum-Reserve. Press service of the museum /

The first journey of Pushkin, except for children’s trips to the grandmother’s estate Zakharovo, was the traditional transfer between the capitals, from Moscow to St. Petersburg, to the Tsarskoe Selo Lyceum. At the end of the Lyceum, the young poet went to the Mikhailovskoye family’s estate, but a serious adult voyage began a little later and not on his own. Pushkin’s "outrageous poems" were sent to the "half-link" to the south – "the floor", because formally it was an appointment for civil service in the Chisinau office, and later in Odessa. This was a mild punishment in comparison with the original intention to send him to the Solovetsky Monastery or to Siberia.

The points of the Pushkin routes of 1820-24 are Petersburg, Ekaterinoslav, Taganrog, Aksai, Novocherkassk, Georgievsk, Konstantinovsk, Pyatigorsk, Zheleznovodsk, Kislovodsk, Taman, Kerch, Feodosia, Gurzuf, Bakhchisaray, Simferopol, Chisinau, Kamenka, Kiev, Tulchin, Ackerman, Odessa, Izmail, Nikolaev, Elisavetgrad, Kremenchuk, Chernigov, Mogilev, Vitebsk … Pushkin was bored, made acquaintances, including with future Decembrists, fell in love, saw authentic traces of antiquity, imagined himself Ovid in exile and joined the Masonic lodge "Ovid" met the dawn at sea board the ship, he rushed to the capital – and, of course, wrote poetry. Internal freedom could not be limited, and new impressions gave food to the mind and imagination. So from the "rusty iron tube" of the broken fountain of the khan’s palace in Bakhchisaray was born the "Bakhchisarai fountain".

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphereRepublic of Crimea. Bakhchisaray. Bakhchsarai Palace Museum. Photo: Eugene Ptushka / Strana.ru

In 1824, the "half-link" was replaced by dismissal from the service and this reference, since the censorship uncovered Pushkin’s letter about "atheistic sentiments". He was sent to Mikhailovskoe under the supervision of his father. For two years Pushkin was confined to the neighborhood of the estate and dreamed of escaping from there by any means. The sharpening (also very fruitful) ended in 1926, when the new emperor Nicholas I summoned Pushkin to Moscow.

The second great journey of Pushkin is an expedition to the Caucasus and Turkey, together with the active army. He went there, for the first time, after wooing Natalia Goncharova and receiving a refusal. From this trip there was one more great "travelogue" – "Journey to Arzrum".

The next wide route in the early 1830s was connected with the collection of materials for the "History of the Pugachev Riot" and "The Captain’s Daughter". The journey through Pugachev’s places led Pushkin to Nizhny Novgorod, Kazan, Simbirsk, Lazykovo, Orenburg and Uralsk (the former Yaitsk town). The immersion in the material was complete: back home, to Boldino, he was leaving the same road that was taking the captive Pugachev.

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphere

Pskov region. Museum-Reserve A.S. Pushkin’s Mikhailovsky. Photo: Pavel Pelevin / Strana.ru

Since Pushkin documented his life in letters, they help to compile a "manual" for a Russian tourist of the first half of the 19th century. Firstly, having no own crew, A.S. all his life he traveled by public transport, that is, "on postal". In summer, for the broken Russian roads, the cart was best suited, in the winter – a kibitka, that is, a sleigh with a semicircular covered top. The stagecoach, which was fired between Moscow and Petersburg, Pushkin found experimentally unbearably slow and uncomfortable in organizing the movement. Naturally, he had to get injured on the way, when coachmen "overturned" him, and lay down at the postal station. A significant problem was the food of the traveler: often there was simply no food, and the owners were persuaded by the "fast day", or it was of terrible quality – with cockroaches, etc. Therefore, good institutions were awarded poetry recommendations, which we still remember – for example, about "Galiani or Kolioni" with their cutlets in Tver.

A vivid description of the road burdens is a half-joking response to his wife in October 1832, when she was jealous of A.S. because of the delay in the letter: "A Russian man on the road does not change clothes and, having reached the pig’s place, goes to the bathhouse, which is our second mother. Are you not baptized, that you do not know all this? "

The best and most atmospheric museum of Pushkin’s traveler is the Museum of his hero, that is, the Station-master in Võre. There you can see and pre-empt all the realities of the old Russian road – and transport, and stops on the way, and the living conditions of the passenger or coachman.

Yakov Sannikov

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphereShot from the film "The Land of Sannikov." Directed by Albert Mkrtchan, Leonid Popov. Mosfilm Studios, 1973

The merchant Sannikov may not have been a particularly outstanding traveler in terms of wanderings. But he gave us an exciting geographical legend, and with it – a song for all time that everything in this world is ghostly. The fate of Sannikov and his discovery, in general, confirms this.

About the merchant Sannikov, we again know a little. He was born in 1780 in Ust-Yanske (Yakutia), was engaged in the extraction of furs and mammoth bones, which was abundant in permafrost, and they were valued at least as much as Arctic fox. Apparently, he was attracted to solitary travels in the Far North, and he overcame the polar expanses even in winter alone. Sannikov was the first to reach the Stolbovoi Islands, Faddeevsky and Novaya Sibir and returned safely, having obtained from the government the preemptive right to collect mammoth bones on these islands.

In 1809 he became the foreman of the artel of industrialists, that is hunters, as part of the expedition of Matvey Gedenstrom, who explored the Novosibirsk Islands. In March of the same year, industrialists on dog sleds crossed the island of New Siberia from the south to the north, and there, from the northern shore, Sannikov discerned in the distance to the northeast a kind of condensation of blue. The "blue" for him was what foreshadowed the discovery of a new land among the polar sea. However, when the members of the expedition moved towards the "blue", there were found only ice mountains, usual for the polar sea.

But Sannikov was sure that in the north lies the undiscovered land. In the autumn of 1810, he found on the north-western shore of Kotelny Island, he again saw far away in the north, not just the blue, but the stone mountains. The head of the expedition had no reason to doubt the sight and instincts of Sannikov, and the alleged island was designated on the map as "the land seen by Sannikov". The third time Sannikov saw his "land" in the north another year later, when he was with his son on the island of Faddeevsky. The location of the ghost island was shifting, as if there were several or one of the islands moving around.

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphere

Igor Stomakhin / Strana.ru The Tver Region. Tver. Monument to Afanasy Nikitin

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphere

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphere

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphere

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphere

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphere

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphere

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphere

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphere

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphere

Afanasiy Nikitin

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphere

Tver region. Tver. Monument to Athanasius Nikitin. Photo: Igor Stomakhin / Strana.ru

The Tver merchant Afanasy Nikitin is considered, if not the first, then one of the first Europeans to reach India. And not only in this he is the first. Nikitin is the first Russian "commercial traveler" known to us – a business tourist, as they would say today, unlike pilgrims or discoverers who conquered new lands. The first Russian author of the travelogue – "Walking for the Three Seas". Finally, the first Russian, keen on Indian culture, in which he plunged into place.

Afanasy Nikitin is also one of the most mysterious travelers. We know his book, but about him, in fact, we know almost nothing, except the travel routes. When and where he was born, it is not known. It was only a year of death – 1475. "Nikitin" is not even a surname, but a patronymic: the son of a peasant Nikita. The status of the "Tver merchant" is also in question – for a poor merchant Athanasius seems to be too educated a man of broad views and high connections. He traveled on a journey with the blessing of the great Tver prince Mikhail Borisovich, the Tver governor and Tver Bishop Gennady. There is a conspiracy thesis: if Afanasy was a kind of secret agent sent to search for the legendary diamonds of Golconda to replenish the treasury. Allegedly for this reason he continued the way even after his caravan was plundered by robbers, and the satellites withdrew from the distance. However, a more mundane version says that the engine of adventurism was the banal debts and the hope of gaining wealth.

The route of Nikitin is more or less clear. In the spring of 1468, he and his companions on two ships left Tver, heading for the Caspian Sea. This is the first of the "three seas". The Volga reached Nizhny Novgorod, then to Kazan, Saratov, Old and New Saray, sailed to Astrakhan. Under Astrakhan they were attacked by local bandits, who first seized one ship with goods, then another. They released the looted merchants, barring their way back. "And we went, weeping, on two ships to Derbent."

Tver region. Tver. Mosaic of the artist A.I. Golubtsova, dedicated to Athanasius Nikitin. A source:

On the way to Derbent, Nikitin’s companions did not escape the future Makhachkala – the ancient city of Tarki (now it is part of the capital of Dagestan). There, a storm broke one of the ships, and the travelers were again captured. From Derbent, already alone, Nikitin moved to Baku, from there to Iran, to the cities that he lists in his notes: Chapakur, Sari, Amol, Demavend, Ray, Kashan, Nain, Yazd, Sirjan, Tarom, Lar, Ormuz. Of the values ​​he had only a thoroughbred horse, which he hoped to profitably sell in India (profitably did not work). At the same time the son of the peasant Nikita spoke Farsi, Arabic and several Turkic languages, knew astronomy well, and could write well. In addition, he repeatedly emphasizes his firmness in the faith – in Islam Athanasius did not pass, although this would be an easy way out for a traveler in the East. I was very bored on Christian holidays and "books".

After the city, "Ormuz New, on the island lying", the Indian Sea began, the second of three. Ormuz was a large port in the Persian Gulf, from where Nikitin sailed to India – a quarter of a century before the Portuguese Vasco da Gama, officially opened the sea route to it for Europeans. Impressions from India were contradictory: Athanasius found it interesting, but – current tourists will be surprised – ruinously expensive for living.

Republic of Crimea. Theodosius. Monument to Athanasius Nikitin. Source: livejournal.com

Black Sea became the third sea. According to him, Nikitin finally sailed towards his homeland, having reached India via Persia to Turkish Trebizond. The next point was Theodosius. More precisely, the Genoa Kafa. Not everyone knows that this is the second after Afanasy Nikitin city, where there is also a monument to him.

Before his native Tver, and even before the actual Rus, he did not get there, he died en route to the territory of the principality of Lithuania, near Smolensk. The Moscow merchants, who were his companions, did not let Nikitin’s trip notes – brought them to Moscow, and "Khozhdenie" literally got caught in the annals. That reinforces the vivid theory of a complex merchant-agent under cover …

Surprisingly, today in Russia there is no museum Afanasy Nikitin. Although this fact can be understood – too mysterious character, too little is known about him. There are monuments in Feodosia and the echo of Tver monument. Afanasy Nikitin is a symbol of a city that did not forget his countryman even when he was hiding under the party nickname "Kalinin".

Alexander Pushkin

"Our everything", of course, could not fail to become a model for a Russian traveler as well – a little writer (not counting the same Nikitin) wound so many miles along the roads. This time the roads were purely domestic with a short exit to the land of Turkey, in Arzrum. Alexander Sergeevich Pushkin – the only person from his circle – all his life was "not allowed to travel abroad". Most of his travels were made either by a state order or by official need. That did not stop to create a whole body of great road poetry, and now any person who reads in Russian, from childhood, imagines the winter road, the coachman’s songs, the ringing of the bell, the swirling of demons in blizzards, and the eternal longing of the traveler around the house.

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphere

Pskov region. The Mikhailovsky Museum-Reserve. Press service of the museum /

The first journey of Pushkin, except for children’s trips to the grandmother’s estate Zakharovo, was the traditional transfer between the capitals, from Moscow to St. Petersburg, to the Tsarskoe Selo Lyceum. At the end of the Lyceum, the young poet went to the Mikhailovskoye family’s estate, but a serious adult voyage began a little later and not on his own. Pushkin’s "outrageous poems" were sent to the "half-link" to the south – "the floor", because formally it was an appointment for civil service in the Chisinau office, and later in Odessa. This was a mild punishment in comparison with the original intention to send him to the Solovetsky Monastery or to Siberia.

The points of the Pushkin routes of 1820-24 are Petersburg, Ekaterinoslav, Taganrog, Aksai, Novocherkassk, Georgievsk, Konstantinovsk, Pyatigorsk, Zheleznovodsk, Kislovodsk, Taman, Kerch, Feodosia, Gurzuf, Bakhchisaray, Simferopol, Chisinau, Kamenka, Kiev, Tulchin, Ackerman, Odessa, Izmail, Nikolaev, Elisavetgrad, Kremenchuk, Chernigov, Mogilev, Vitebsk … Pushkin was bored, made acquaintances, including with future Decembrists, fell in love, saw authentic traces of antiquity, imagined himself Ovid in exile and joined the Masonic lodge "Ovid" met the dawn at sea board the ship, he rushed to the capital – and, of course, wrote poetry. Internal freedom could not be limited, and new impressions gave food to the mind and imagination. So from the "rusty iron tube" of the broken fountain of the khan’s palace in Bakhchisaray was born the "Bakhchisarai fountain".

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphereRepublic of Crimea. Bakhchisaray. Bakhchsarai Palace Museum. Photo: Eugene Ptushka / Strana.ru

In 1824, the "half-link" was replaced by dismissal from the service and this reference, since the censorship uncovered Pushkin’s letter about "atheistic sentiments". He was sent to Mikhailovskoe under the supervision of his father. For two years Pushkin was confined to the neighborhood of the estate and dreamed of escaping from there by any means. The sharpening (also very fruitful) ended in 1926, when the new emperor Nicholas I summoned Pushkin to Moscow.

The second great journey of Pushkin is an expedition to the Caucasus and Turkey, together with the active army. He went there, for the first time, after wooing Natalia Goncharova and receiving a refusal. From this trip there was one more great "travelogue" – "Journey to Arzrum".

The next wide route in the early 1830s was connected with the collection of materials for the "History of the Pugachev Riot" and "The Captain’s Daughter". The journey through Pugachev’s places led Pushkin to Nizhny Novgorod, Kazan, Simbirsk, Lazykovo, Orenburg and Uralsk (the former Yaitsk town). The immersion in the material was complete: back home, to Boldino, he was leaving the same road that was taking the captive Pugachev.

For three seas, around the world and in the stratospherePskov region. Museum-Reserve A.S. Pushkin’s Mikhailovsky. Photo: Pavel Pelevin / Strana.ru

Since Pushkin documented his life in letters, they help to compile a "manual" for a Russian tourist of the first half of the 19th century. Firstly, having no own crew, A.S. all his life he traveled by public transport, that is, "on postal". In summer, for the broken Russian roads, the cart was best suited, in the winter – a kibitka, that is, a sleigh with a semicircular covered top. The stagecoach, which was fired between Moscow and Petersburg, Pushkin found experimentally unbearably slow and uncomfortable in organizing the movement. Naturally, he had to get injured on the way, when coachmen "overturned" him, and lay down at the postal station. A significant problem was the food of the traveler: often there was simply no food, and the owners were persuaded by the "fast day", or it was of terrible quality – with cockroaches, etc. Therefore, good institutions were awarded poetry recommendations, which we still remember – for example, about "Galiani or Kolioni" with their cutlets in Tver.

A vivid description of the road burdens is a half-joking response to his wife in October 1832, when she was jealous of A.S. because of the delay in the letter: "A Russian man on the road does not change clothes and, having reached the pig’s place, goes to the bathhouse, which is our second mother. Are you not baptized, that you do not know all this? "

The best and most atmospheric museum of Pushkin’s traveler is the Museum of his hero, that is, the Station-master in Võre. There you can see and pre-empt all the realities of the old Russian road – and transport, and stops on the way, and the living conditions of the passenger or coachman.

Yakov Sannikov

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphere

Shot from the film "The Land of Sannikov." Directed by Albert Mkrtchan, Leonid Popov. Mosfilm Studios, 1973

The merchant Sannikov may not have been a particularly outstanding traveler in terms of wanderings. But he gave us an exciting geographical legend, and with it – a song for all time that everything in this world is ghostly. The fate of Sannikov and his discovery, in general, confirms this.

About the merchant Sannikov, we again know a little. He was born in 1780 in Ust-Yanske (Yakutia), was engaged in the extraction of furs and mammoth bones, which was abundant in permafrost, and they were valued at least as much as Arctic fox. Apparently, he was attracted to solitary travels in the Far North, and he overcame the polar expanses even in winter alone. Sannikov was the first to reach the Stolbovoi Islands, Faddeevsky and Novaya Sibir and returned safely, having obtained from the government the preemptive right to collect mammoth bones on these islands.

In 1809 he became the foreman of the artel of industrialists, that is hunters, as part of the expedition of Matvey Gedenstrom, who explored the Novosibirsk Islands. In March of the same year, industrialists on dog sleds crossed the island of New Siberia from the south to the north, and there, from the northern shore, Sannikov discerned in the distance to the northeast a kind of condensation of blue. The "blue" for him was what foreshadowed the discovery of a new land among the polar sea. However, when the members of the expedition moved towards the "blue", there were found only ice mountains, usual for the polar sea.

But Sannikov was sure that in the north lies the undiscovered land. In the autumn of 1810, he found on the north-western shore of Kotelny Island, he again saw far away in the north, not just the blue, but the stone mountains. The head of the expedition had no reason to doubt the sight and instincts of Sannikov, and the alleged island was designated on the map as "the land seen by Sannikov". The third time Sannikov saw his "land" in the north another year later, when he was with his son on the island of Faddeevsky. The location of the ghost island was shifting, as if there were several or one of the islands moving around.

The search for Sannikov’s land was based on the conviction of the 19th century that the polar seas hide the Arctic continent. The earth was searched for more than a hundred years, and the point in search was set only in 1937, when the Soviet icebreaker Sadko explored the whole area where the earth was being searched, and the Arctic aviation confirmed the sailors’ conclusions – there is no land among the ice. This does not mean that it seemed to Sannikom. Most likely, he really saw, but not stone mountains, and rocks on an island of fossil ice. Such islands move and disappear.

The research of the Sadko icebreaker was closely watched by Vladimir Obruchev, a scientist and writer. Obruchev’s novel The Land of Sannikov was written 10 years before. His 1973 film adaptation made the ghost island as popular as the Bermuda Triangle.

Shot from the film "The Land of Sannikov." Directed by Albert Mkrtchan, Leonid Popov. Mosfilm Studios, 1973

Yakov Sannikov himself also dissolved like a polar ghost. After 1811 there is no documentary information about him, only a hundred years later the Soviet pilot Alexei Gratsiansky found a tombstone with the inscription "Yakov Sannikov" in the lower reaches of Lena. Precisely, it can be said that the descendants of Sannikov inherited his craving for the North and also were associated with polar research – the son of Fyodor and the grandson of Jacob helped equip the expeditions of Edward Toll and Fridtjof Nansen.

Nikolay Romanov

Tsarevich Nikolai Alexandrovich. 1891 Source:

Russian emperors from the Romanov dynasty traveled often enough, but mostly in Europe. The example of the last king is special: being an heir, he went on a voyage to the East, overcoming a route longer than 51 thousand kilometers. The Tsar’s cruiser "Memory of Azov" traveled around southeast Asia, and on the return journey Nikolai Alexandrovich’s expedition moved overland across Siberia: from Vladivostok through Ussuriysk, Khabarovsk, Blagoveshchensk, Nerchinsk, Chita, Irkutsk, Tomsk, Surgut, Tobolsk, Tara, Omsk and Orenburg, where by train to St. Petersburg.

Nicholas started in Gatchina, then there was Warsaw (at that time part of the Russian Empire), and then dizzily: Vienna – Trieste – Athens – Alexandria – Port Said – Cairo, then India from Bombay to Calcutta, then Ceylon, Singapore, the island of Java, Thailand, Vietnam. From Saigon to Nanjing, Hong Kong and Shanghai, then Japan: Nagasaki-Kobe-Kyoto. On the one hand, the traditional journey of the heir to the throne, who knows the world. Unusual is the route, which also has a geopolitical meaning: Russia unobtrusively designated itself as a key player in Asia.

For 22-year-old Nicholas, it was both a great adventure, and a vague foretaste of the terrible end of the Romanov dynasty. On the way back, when the ship "Nicholas" stopped in Tobolsk, the heir settled in the same Governor’s house, where he and his family would be placed during the last exile. A traces of blood on the shirt of the Tsesarevich – the memory of the "incident in Otsu", where a Japanese fanatic patriot attacked Nicholas – was used for genetic examination of the remains of the last emperor.

But before the Tobolsk link was far away, and while Nicholas experienced romantic events. He not only visited the most exotic countries, but got a fashionable color tattoo, talked to geishas and received a scar from a sword blow. This attempt caused an earlier return than expected. The heir’s way back was marked by magnificent memorial constructions, triumphal arches and obelisks in the cities where he stayed. After 1917, these structures, for obvious reasons, were destroyed. In recent decades, some of them have been restored – as, for example, the Arc de Triomphe in Vladivostok. The main thing is the Transsib, which was officially founded on May 31, 1981 with the personal participation of the future king. Nikolay personally drove the wheelbarrow of the earth to the place where the rail was laid.

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphereTsarevich Nikolai Alexandrovich (fifth from left) during the trip. Egypt. 1890. Source:

St. Petersburg. The Cabinet of Curiosities. The doll "Geisha Omatsu". Photo by: kunstkamera.ru

In addition, from the journey the prince brought numerous exotic trophies and gifts, magnificent photographs. Especially there were a lot of Japanese rarities, since after the attempt of Nicholas, the family of the Emperor Meiji and ordinary Japanese citizens were literally showered with "excusable" gifts. Some of the gifts were later kept in the Winter Palace and Anichkov Palace, part was transferred to the Kunstkamera. After the revolution, these things were forced to hide their "royal origin", and visitors to the Kunstkamera did not have the opportunity to see the most interesting – for example, a portrait of a geisha who attracted the attention of the last emperor. Only in 2010, the Oriental trip of Nicholas Alexandrovich inspired museum workers to the large exhibition "Panorama of Empires" in the Museum-Reserve "Tsaritsyno".

Nevertheless, for many years the entrance to the Kunstkamera was guarded by two expressive figures – the Ceylon demon-keeper and the Vietnamese god of hunting with tusks, mountains and leopard skin. Few of the visitors imagined that the Vietnamese chimera came to Russia with the future and the last king.

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphere

Fedor Konyukhov. Photo: Igor Stomakhin / Strana.ru

Fedor Konyukhov is our contemporary, but he seems to be either a "Renaissance man" or an alien from some other world without banal rules and boundaries. Unlike the vast majority of travelers, Konyukhov does not have "specialization": he went on a journey and sailing, and dog sledding, in climbing equipment and in a balloon. He visited both poles and all the highest peaks of the world, five times walked around the world, 17 times crossed the Atlantic Ocean, including one on a rowing boat. Not all of his expeditions were triumphant – Konyukhova, judging by the frequent headlines of the news, almost all rescue services in the world saved. Nevertheless, in our time he embodies an uncontrollable desire to move forward and rediscover the world.

Fedor Konyukhov. Photo: Igor Stomakhin / Strana.ru

Biography Konyukhov as a pest as his routes. He was born in Zaporozhye, studied at the carver-restorer in Bobruisk, in Odessa graduated from the nautical school, in Leningrad – the Arctic School and the Theological Academy. In 2010, the famous traveler was ordained priestly priest of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church (MP). This is not a sudden conversion, but a family tradition: the priests were the grandfather Konyukhov and the brother of the grandfather, canonized as the new martyr Nikolai Konyukhov. Fyodor Filippovich repeatedly told that at critical moments he was praying to Nicholas the Wonderworker and healer Panteleimon. The best place on earth is called the Trinity-Sergius Lavra.

This year Konyukhov has two grandiose projects: a round-the-world trip on a rowing boat through the three legendary capes of the Southern Hemisphere – Cape Horn, Cape of Good Hope, Cape Luin and flight into the stratosphere. Specially designed hermetic capsule of the thermal balloon "Russia" should raise the indefatigable father of Fyodor by 25 thousand meters.

Fedor Konyukhov during testing of a capsule of a thermal balloon. A photo:

Fedor Konyukhov is always on the road, but "localize" if not himself, then his multi-faceted worldview can be in Moscow, in his expeditionary headquarters. This is almost the center of the capital, Sadovnicheskaya street, 77. In the courtyard of the usual Moscow house, in a very small space, there are the museum-workshop of Konyukhov, the chapel of St. Nicholas the Wonderworker and the chapel of St. Fedor Ushakov, the museum of anchors in the open air, many monuments and commemorative plaques in honor of people close to Konyukhov in spirit – from Admiral Nakhimov to Nikolai Gumilev. In the workshop there is a boat "Turgoyak", on which Konyukhov alone crossed the Pacific Ocean. A place in a good way is insane – as if you get into the dream of a great traveler.

Les Hallerbos – a fabulous dream in reality

Les Hallerbos - a fabulous dream in reality

In a small European country Belgium, just south of Brussels, there is a real fairy tale forest – Hallerbos. Everyone who ever sees the beauty of this place will immediately believe in fairy tales.

Les Hallerbos - a fabulous dream in reality

In a small European country Belgium, just south of Brussels, there is a real fairy tale forest – Hallerbos. Everyone who ever sees the beauty of this place will immediately believe in fairy tales.

Grown on the site of a centuries-old beech forest, virtually destroyed in World War II (although some specimens have since been found here), and occupying an area of ​​five and a half square kilometers, Hallerbos has a unique flora. Every year, in a rather short period of time, namely from the end of April to the beginning of May, billions of billions of flowers bloom here – wild hyacinths (they are also mouse hyacinths), in our country they are called viper onions or bells – having all kinds of shades of blue.

Les Hallerbos - a fabulous dream in reality

So these plants cover an amazing carpet with magnificent and unique patterns of the whole forest. During this period, many residents of the country and visitors visit Hallerbos for walks, either on foot, horse or bicycle, for there are paths and routes for them. By the way, all the tracks have either an asphalt covering, or are strewn with chips, so even in rainy weather it’s quite comfortable walking in the woods. Visitors can admire the flower patterns of ultramarine color, circling around trees, framing paths and rivulets. It is especially impressive to observe this unique beauty in the pre-dawn period, when there are still very few young green leaves on the trees through which the first sunrise rays of the sun make their way, and the hazy night haze has not yet come down – that’s when you can feel yourself in a real fairy forest.

Les Hallerbos - a fabulous dream in reality

Les Hallerbos - a fabulous dream in reality

It will begin to seem that just around the tree will appear some fairy creature – a kikimora, hurrying about their business, or mischievous elves who have arranged a boy’s bouzou. The blue forest, as Hallerbos is called, fascinates anyone, even a very skeptical traveler. And on children of any age in general makes an indelible impression. Believe me, it’s really worth seeing, it’s impossible to describe, and even the most imaginative imagination is unable to create images even roughly similar to what you’ll see in Hallerbos.

Les Hallerbos - a fabulous dream in reality

Churches and monasteries of Bamberg

Churches and monasteries of BambergMonastery of the Carmelites

Reportings about Bamberg. Part III

In "Franconian Rome", as the ancient German city of Bamberg, there are about a dozen temples, monasteries and chapels. Some of them were laid a thousand years ago during the life of the founders of this city and the local bishopric – Henry II and Kunigunde of Luxembourg.

For the old churches and monasteries of Bamberg, the centuries did not pass without a trace. They suffered from fires, were plundered during various wars and administrative Napoleonic reforms, were reconstructed according to a new architectural fashion. Mixing of styles is found everywhere. The main tone is now set by baroque and rococo, especially – in the interior, but the main temple – the Imperial Cathedral – belongs to the Roman era, but this monument we will devote a separate report, but for now we will get acquainted with several other sights.

Photo gallery: Ancient temples "Franconian Rome"

  • Churches and monasteries of BambergWalking in Bamberg – III

St. Stephen’s Temple

In Bamberg there is a unique church in two respects at once – the temple of St. Stephen (Sankt Stephan). Firstly, it is considered the only church to the north of the Alps, which the pope personally consecrated. Secondly, at the beginning of the XIX century the church passed to the Evangelical community and is now the only Protestant church in the world, which was once consecrated by the Pope. True, nothing was saved from the original building.

The Church of St. Stephen was laid on one of the seven hills of Bamberg by its founders – the future emperor of the Holy Roman Empire of the German nation Henry II and his wife – the empress Kunigunda in 1009, at that time – the German king and queen. Henry II became the last German king and emperor of the Ottonian dynasty. In the time of these rulers, the East Frankish Kingdom became the most powerful state formation in Western Europe.

Unlike its predecessors, the main activity to strengthen the empire, he deployed north of the Alps, focusing on the Christianization of peoples in the eastern lands. Henry II vigorously strengthened the church, created new bishoprics, transferred lands to monasteries. He wanted them to play a more important role in supporting the imperial power, including providing and maintaining part of the army.

Bamberg, in which Henry II founded one of the new episcopates, was his favorite city – "Franconian Rome". In 1020, Pope Benedict VIII arrived here, taking part in the consecration of the St. Stephen’s Temple, the construction of which was just finished. The land for him was donated by the Empress Kunigunda from her morning gift (Morgengabe) – a gift from her husband after the wedding night.

Viewing the temple, you can find examples of just three styles: Romanesque, Gothic and Baroque. The construction of the present Baroque building was started in 1626 and was delayed because of the Thirty Years’ War until 1662. The Gothic tower of the church was preserved from the XIII century. Inside, part of the decor in the altar part is made in the Rococo style.

The Upper Temple

Not far from St. Stephen’s temple on the neighboring Kaulberg hill above the city stands the main parish church of Bamberg – the temple of the Virgin Mary (Kirche Unsere Liebe Frau) or the Upper Pastor’s Temple (Obere Pfarre), completely preserved the Gothic exterior. For the first time in the chronicles, it is mentioned in 1140, but the construction of the current building was in the XIV-XV centuries.

Churches and monasteries of BambergChurch of the Virgin Mary

Particular attention should be paid to the bell tower, located asymmetrically relative to the longitudinal nave. For several centuries until 1926 it was used as a watchtower. For this purpose in 1537 the bell tower was built up by erecting a two-storied lodge at the top.

Monastery of the Carmelites

Bamberg’s next landmark is just a few minutes’ walk away. The Carmelite Monastery of St. Mary and St. Theodore greets visitors with the Baroque façade of the monastery church – one of the most beautiful in Bamberg. This kind of church acquired in 1692-1707. Mention of the first monastery on this site is dated 1030 year. Then there was a church shelter for the poor and sick, founded by the first bishop of Bamberg, Eberhard I. In the next century, he was replaced by a convent. The history of its creation is interesting.

In 1156 the pfatzgraf Hermann von Höchstadt-Stahleck started feud with one of his neighbors, claiming for part of his territory. For this, his nephew, Emperor Friedrich Barbarossa (Friedrich Barbarossa) sentenced his uncle to the punishment that was foreseen in such cases for the nobility.

Churches and monasteries of BambergBypass gallery in the monastery of the Carmelites

The Palatine was to carry out publicly in his arms from one possession to another dog. Usually, such punishment was used for shaming before the death penalty, but sometimes they were replaced by the execution itself, if it could not be carried out for any political reasons. After the dog’s public transport, the palatine repented, left his childless wife and went to the monastery, where he soon died. After that, his widow Gertrud (Gertrud von Höchstadt-Stahleck) sent money from her inheritance to create a convent in Bamberg, which she then herself entered.

During the Peasants’ wars in 1525 the monastery was plundered, and in 1554 it was closed. A few decades later, Carmelite monks from the Regnica valley moved into its walls. A special celebrity was their library. In 1803, their monastery was dissolved, and property was confiscated in favor of the state. The premises of the former monastery were rebuilt and used by the Prussian military as an infirmary and barracks. The monks returned here in 1902.

Of special interest is the bypass gallery – a 14th century Kreuzgang (Kreuzgang) in Romanesque style with Gothic elements. Enjoying the monastic silence and tranquility, we go to the main church of Bamberg – the Imperial Cathedral, and from it – to the monastery on Mount Michaelsberg.

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On the mountains of China with a tent. Part 1

Xian-terracotta army-Huashan mountains

The idea to wander through the mountains of central China with a tent began with a chaotic acquisition of a ticket to Urumqi, as the nearest airport from Novosibirsk, and accordingly the cheapest air ticket to the Celestial Empire. I have issued a visa for a month and onwards.

After arriving in China, in the City of Urumqi, I take a train in a sleeping car to Xi’an to witness the legendary terracotta army and visit the blossoming Hua Shan mountains.

On the mountains of China with a tent. Part 1

So Xian: In the evening, on arrival, settled in bedbug, such as a budget privoshzalnoy private doss house. First, otfutbolili in a nearby expensive hotel, and then, seeing that I was through the chur, settled until morning. The next day he moved to a hostel in the old house-block.

On the mountains of China with a tent. Part 1

Two nights I lived in the old town by the fortress wall. Wandered through the shopping streets as a free museum. Stalls of paintings around and everything you need for painting and calligraphy, as well as inexpensive iron castings are also sold here.

On the mountains of China with a tent. Part 1

Today, a terracotta army, starting at 306 bus from Xi’an Railway Station, is planned. The scale of the excavation is amazing. Digging here since 1974 and until the very tomb of the emperor has not yet reached. The army itself still has to dig and dig. A beautiful monument and you can watch all the stages of the restoration of the figures. Souvenirs are immediately in abundance.

On the mountains of China with a tent. Part 1

After the army I went another 10 km on foot, then a good Chinese from the shop helped me to catch the bus to Wayne. Here I spent the night. Tomorrow on the morning bus from the railway station I’ll go to the mountains of Huashan.

Huashan. He traveled from Weinan for 17 yuan. The street that goes to the park is already pleased with the increased price tags for everything, tourists here are lazily waiting, just wide open the purse. The mountains themselves are not impressive at the approaches, the pearl is hidden by the turns of the canyon .. I’m buying a ticket150 ?. The weather is good, not hot.

On the mountains of China with a tent. Part 1

The farther along the path, the more beautiful the rounded layered slopes, sometimes similar to the lotus flowers, and are separated by authentic petals, it is understandable why the place was so fond of the Taoists. I spend the night under the eastern peak, a playground nearby, as it turned out in the zone of strong impulses of the rotor. I help a Chinese couple put a tent in a strong wind. At night it’s very cold in contrast to the valley, I do not have a sleeping bag, just a light down jacket that does not save much in the wind, I STOP THE STANDS AND THE WIND IS STRENGTHENING, I crawl out of the tent until the skeleton has broken. While shooting his, broke the frame of neighbors, I had to dig them out and help repair the frame until the tent itself was torn. The guy in gratitude treated me with a snicker and gave me a chemical hot-water bottle, seeing that I was without a sleeping bag. I waited until three in the morning, then I got ready and went to the eastern summit, there was a stream of people all night long to meet the dawn. I climbed up into this flea market, almost an hour before dawn. Wind, dubank and crowd to the people. He turned and walked through the central peak toward the south, judging that from there the view of the dawn was more beautiful, because the picture would have an eastern peak. And he did not lose his fortune, met the dawn alone, in a quiet, windless place, just above the golden heavenly palace of Jin Tian Palas.

On the most beautiful southern peak, a round black and white symbol Yin Yan, very associative, is knocked out. How beautiful the mountains of this holy place are, as are the people who live along the paths of the mountain park. The situation is not typical for China, when holidaymakers are dragging trunks with food and water, because the local jerk the six ends. Doshirak on top costs 200 rubles, all the curtain and boiling water for money. How lazy and indifferent are the people who are smoking their ungrateful karma on the road paved with money, so others are open, walking this hard path. Young couples, families supporting their grandparents, sometimes moving in steep places on four points of support.

On the mountains of China with a tent. Part 1

Five peaks, like the fingers of a spreading giant palm, are dispensed on foot in one day. I periodically work as a Saturday white monkey – I take pictures with those who ask, sometimes I get into the frame myself when the companies shoot some flash mobs, I communicate as much as I miss my Chinese, surprising the Aborigines that it turns out that Laoway knows how to speak human language. To those with whom I communicated, I presented the TRP badges of the second degree, for taking the five Taoist peaks.

Xian teenagers gave to feed from their electric cans my gluttonous uncle Jobs’s uncle, who sat exactly on the most beautiful peak of the park. Neither before nor later.

Weinan. After I bought a pancake with stuffing in a stall at the wheels of real turmoil in the night station, and fiddled with a very colorful bull-boy who rolled the dough with powerful blows against the stall. I go, I bite into a delicious analogue of Chinese hot dog-baked in a tandyr loaf with fillings to choose from, to which you put your finger. I have two kinds of sprouted greens, a sausage, an egg, a green onion and a sweet sauce, all roasted on a brazier and tucked into a cake. It is impossible to come off. I go, then murch, and suddenly I see a fellow motorcyclist, tormenting kick kick starter. I come off with difficulty from the cake and say Stop! I now help BANGHA, I think for anyone, he has already filled a candle, I open full gas for him, the good his scooter stands on the central step, the dude in fucking, shows by gesture that it is impossible so. I told him, calmly, I’m in the subject, you kick kick, show, do not fuss. Proventillion and wound up as a pretty. That’s it, I say and again I take on a cake. In the hotel, I went for boiling water, so my hosts sat me at the reception and let me rub my life. as Russia, as a family, a house work, all business. I show pictures, I wonder how they live, half the evening chatted on the “Han Yue, sometimes they were brought in, and I sometimes did not understand everything, but the practice is very good. To the Russians, they are treated well everywhere, seeing me, white laovaya, ask from which country. When they hear that Russian, they smile with friendliness.

Valentin Zyuzyuk.

Travel light)

Top 10 travel books

Top 10 travel books

1. Gregory David Roberts “Shantaram”

An exhaustive novel about India! More than 800 pages of the book are devoted to the adventures of a runaway criminal in one of the most contrasting, contradictory and mysterious countries in the world. Lovers of the East will appreciate the detailed description of Indian slums and luxurious palaces, crazy crowded trains, deaf villages and noisy megacities … From the first to the last page the book is imbued with a sincere love of the author to India, which can catch even those who, before reading Shantarama, were never interested this country.

2. Jack Kerouac “On the Road”

A cult book in the era of beatniks and hippies. Sal Paradise and Dean Moriarty are the heroes of the book who stand with their whole soul behind the two best phenomena of American culture: cars and jazz.

Instead of the usual description of the famous landscapes, Kerouac tells about the hidden corners of America – for example, the outskirts of San Francisco or the camp of migrant farmers in southern California. This book will take you on an exciting journey across America – from New York to the United States. However, the main thing that attracts readers is the unique author’s style and the flair of light insanity, which literally imbued the pages of the novel.

3. Jessica Watson “The power of dreams”

At 12, Jessica tells her parents that she is going to make a round-the-world trip. At 14 she washes the dishes in a restaurant, and learns seafaring for earned money. At 16 Jessica alone swims around the Earth on a small pink yacht and becomes famous.

The book presents the diaries of Jessica Watson, who in 2010 broke the record, becoming the youngest navigator who made a round-the-world non-stop solo trip on a yacht. Despite the very young age, lack of money and disapproval from others, Jessica managed in two years to sharpen the skills of navigation, to find sponsors and persuade parents to let her go around the world …

4. Greg Mortenson “Three cups of tea”

“Three cups of tea” is a striking story about how the most ordinary person, possessing nothing but determination, is able to change the world alone.

Greg Mortenson worked as a nurse, spent the night in a car, and kept his few possessions in a storage room. In memory of his deceased sister, he decided to conquer the most difficult mountain of K2. This attempt almost cost him his life, if not for the help of local residents. A few days in a Pakistani village cut off from civilization shocked Greg so much that he decided to raise the necessary amount and return to Pakistan to build a school for village children.

5. Gill Adrian Anthony “On all four sides”

Ordinary travel notes through the eyes of an unusual person – that’s what a collection of stories AA. Gill is a British journalist and critic. His sharp mind and tenacious eyes manage to notice in any country what has long eluded the attention of tired or overly enthusiastic travelers. You will see a completely new Japan and Africa, America and Cuba, India and Scotland. And, perhaps, you want to go there to make sure personally that everything is exactly as described by the sarcastic, and in places very friendly Gill.

6. Tahir Shah “The Year in Casablanca”

As is known, the East is a delicate matter. This is a first-hand experience of a respectable Englishman, who, tired of the whims of British weather and the frenzied pace of Western civilization, decided to move with his family from the misty dank London to the fragrant gardens of North Africa. But, as it turned out, if you want to become a full-fledged local, it’s not enough to just buy a house in Casablanca and learn Arabic perfectly. In Morocco, the European in order to be respected, it is necessary at least learn how to eat lemon and to communicate with the genies, and also to have a harem.

7. John Krakauer “In the Wild”

Based on real events, this book tells the story of Christopher McCandles – a young man who left behind successful prospects, gave up money and went on a trip to America, moving farther and farther away from civilization … Both the book and the film taken on it caused a violent reaction and a mass pilgrimage to Alaska, to the places of the culmination of the novel – the story of a young American romanticist turned out to be so emotional, exciting and beautiful.

8. Ilya Ilf and Yevgeny Petrov “One-storied America”

Light, full of humor, but, nevertheless, an incredibly informative narrative about the journey of two Soviet correspondents to the United States. Although 80 years have passed since that time, they say that America has not changed so much: there are all the same beautiful roads, the same cult of cars and other equipment, the same radiant and noisy New York and the same simple and identical one-story townships . This book can be used to compose your own route in America, and as an example of ideal travel notes: fascinating, fun and objective.

9. Elizabeth Gilbert “Eat, pray, love!”

Many accuse this popular novel of excessive sentimentality and say that in stores he has a place on the shelf with a cheap ladies’ reading. Nevertheless, the story of a woman who decided to make global changes in her life and went on a journey around the world won thousands of readers. Three countries on the “I” – Italy, India and Indonesia – help the heroines to find inner harmony, and juicy description makes readers passionately want to immediately move into one of them.

10. Alex Garland “The Beach”

The story of three young travelers who have found and lost paradise on earth. With knowledge, the author describes the favorite themes of young escapists: a journey without plans and return tickets, a paradise island in warm waters, light drugs and seemingly ideal community, living apart from the ordinary civilization ..

The last day of Pompeii: found a new victim

The last day of Pompeii: found a new victim

The last day of Pompeii: found a new victim

The last day of Pompeii: found a new victim

During the excavation in the archaeological park of the city of Pompeii, the remains of a man were found, trying to escape from a natural cataclysm.

At the site of the ancient Roman city of Pompeii, archaeologists discovered the remains of a man who died during the eruption of Vesuvius in 79 AD. According to scientists, at the time of death, the man was just over 30 years old. His leg was affected by a skin infection, which caused pain, obstructed movement and eventually caused death.

Scientists characterize the find as extraordinary and dramatic. The man waited for the first phase of the eruption, during which ash clouds were thrown into the air at home, but when he was about to leave the building, a stone slab weighing 300 kg fell on him. His skull was fragmented, it could not be found.

The skeleton lay in the ruins of the house, at the height of the first floor in the V-th area of ​​the city. Earlier here houses of well-to-do townspeople were already found: the judge and the banker. However, excavations of this part of Pompeyev have just begun: three quarters of the territory remains unexplored. Find out about other finds in the legendary city, destroyed by Vesuvius.

In China, they presented evidence of a 5,000-year history of civilization

There were physical evidence of the presence of civilization in China 5,000 years ago.

A team of specialists worked on a project to study China’s history for 15 years, from 2001 to 2016, its results were presented at a conference in Beijing. The project included the study of the division of labor, class differentiation and the distribution of power in order to determine the time of the birth of civilization in the Celestial Empire. Based on findings from archaeological excavations in Lianzhu, Taosi and Shimao, experts concluded that civilization originated in separate areas of the Yellow River 5 800 years ago.

In China, they presented evidence of a 5,000-year history of civilizationExcavations in Shimao © VCG

Early civilizations migrated to the central regions of China about 3,800 years ago, having founded powerful cities that affect neighboring areas, reports GBTimes. Earlier, “My Planet” wrote that in China they found guns with the age of 115,000 years.

The NASA opened a virtual travel office in space

The NASA opened a virtual travel office in space

The new NASA project was named “Exoplanet Travel Bureau.” The first directions were Trappist-1e in the constellation of Aquarius, Kepler-16b and Kepler-186f in the constellation Cygnus, and for the memory of the journey, you can “bring” posters on a space theme.

– exoplanet star TRAPPIST-1. Its diameter is close to the earth, and it is included in the number.

Kepler-16b and Kepler-186f, despite the similarity of the name, are located far apart. revolves around the double star Kepler-16, and NASA offers there a “trip” with the slogan “There, where your shadow will always have a company.”

  • The NASA opened a virtual travel office in space

lies in the planetary system of the red dwarf Kepler-186.

  • The NASA opened a virtual travel office in space

The original images obtained by NASA scientific equipment were not used in visualization: they only inspired artists to create images – so, in their opinion, these distant celestial objects might look like.

Rostov-na-Donu

Rostov-na-Donu

If you want to find out what the Russian southern mentality is, then it’s for sure in Rostov-on-Don, a place for those who want to eat deliciously and have a good drink.

The city on the shore of the navigable river Don was founded at the intersection of many trade routes, and here always lived freedom-loving Cossacks and enterprising merchants.

As locals consider, the spirit of trade, freedom and enjoyment of life is felt here until now.

Rostov is called the capital of the south of Russia and the gateway to the Caucasus – representatives of more than 100 nationalities live in the city, and all of them manage to get along in peace and harmony.

Rostov-na-Donu

In Rostov are not accustomed to save on fun, so almost at every step here are bars, restaurants and clubs. Don fish, fish, ears, boiled crayfish, local beer and Don wine – this is the city’s business card, and the Rostov people will look at you with indignation if you leave here sober and hungry.

Rostov-na-Donu

Of course, the main attraction for Rostov is the Don River, so first of all go to the embankment – take a walk, fish or go on a boat.

In the evenings dances are arranged here, and appointments are also appointed here, so this is also the most romantic place in the city.

Rostov-na-Donu

The next mandatory item of the program is the so-called Paramonovsky warehouses on Chekhov Street right in the center. These are dilapidated buildings that are more than 100 years old. Inside, they are struck by underground springs, something that reminds of the ancient Roman baths.

Rostov-na-Donu

Paramonovsky warehouses and "Rostov Arena"

Right in the middle of the market is the main cathedral – a somewhat unexpected neighborhood, is not it?

In any case, the cathedral is very beautiful and deserves special attention.

In the market you can buy delicacies – fish, fruit, meat – and near the cathedral there is a local flea market where among the junk you can find really interesting and valuable things: coins, gramophones with old plates, Cossack samovars and other kitchen utensils.

Magnet-fresco

Rostov-na-Donu

The old part of Rostov is the blocks on both sides of Bolshaya Sadovaya Street, where the buildings of the XIX-early XX century were preserved. The ancient merchants’ houses, overgrown courtyards on the streets of Ulyanovsk, Shaumyan and Turgenevskaya, paving stones instead of asphalt – this is a great place for romantic walks. In order not to miss the most interesting examples of Rostov architecture, note two addresses for yourself.

Bolshaya Sadovaya street

On Bolshaya Sadovaya, 27/47 there is a mansion given to a famous actress of the XIX century by Margarita Chernova, a fan. And at the intersection of Sadovaya and Krepostny Lane – the so-called Martyn Brothers’ house, in which, after the restoration, one of the branches of the museum-preserve of writer Mikhail Sholokhov is located.

Rostov-na-Donu

Monument to the Plumber

In general, in Rostov there are a lot of unpretentious but nice buildings, parks and unusual bronze monuments – for example, a monument to the Plumber in Sobornoy Lane, a monument to the merchant-peddler and his cat in Gorky Park, a monument to the Reader of the newspaper "Evening Rostov", Mechanical heart, Nahalenok and Grandfather Shchukar on the embankment.

Rostov-na-Donu"Mechanical heart"

Crossroads Voroshilovsky Prospekt and Temernitskaya Street

Rostovites themselves in their free time go to the Theater Square in the park named after the October Revolution with a huge Ferris wheel, from which the entire center of the city is seen. And there are fountains and the drama theater named after Gorky, who are also proud of the local residents.

The constructivist building of the 1930s was made quite like a huge tractor – the architects Shuko and Gelfreich wanted to make the theater a monument to the first industrial five-year plan.

theatre square

A little higher along the street Sadovaya there is one more constructivist building in the form of a piano – this is a musical theater.

The most beautiful street in the city of Rostov still consider Pushkin – there, like on the waterfront, ride rollerblades and bicycles (they can be rented), and in the evenings they dance in the open air for live music.

Another, entirely new business card of the city is the left bank of the Don River.

Earlier here came just for the sake of swimming and dozens of restaurants lined up in a row on the waterfront.

Rostov-na-DonuStadium "Rostov-Arena" on the left bank of the Don

But now the stadium has been built there, and the park around it becomes among the locals another popular place where you can spend your weekend pleasantly and profitably.

Rostov-na-Donu

Rostov-na-Donu

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Samara

Polina Nakraynikova, Editor-in-Chief of the Portal "Big Village"

"Samara Arena"

The Samara lifestyle, according to the apt expression of one of my colleagues, is "when you come to work with sand in your underpants".

Samarans can not decide in any way whether they live in a megacity or a resort in the Volga.

Wooden huts are adjacent to high-rise business centers, the outskirts are rapidly built up by endless rows of similar new buildings (which local architects do not hesitate to compare with Auschwitz), and when someone talks about "sleeping" and "criminal" district, then speech often comes from the same place.

Samara

Most of the citizens spend a free summer day on the other side of the Volga, where you can swim without problems on the ferry. In Rozhdestveno it is worth to ride on the heights (on the shore there is a rental point where they will be given out for 350 rubles), in Shiryaevo they go with tents. Obligatory points for visiting here – the house of the artist Ilya Repin, the gallery and the mountain Camel, on which at least once in life every self-respecting local historian climbed.

Samara

Repin Museum

Return way through the Volga can be done on the private boatman: they will take more expensive, but the journey will be quick and with a lot of splashing.

Samara

The main tourist route in the city, of course, also begins on the embankment with randomly arranged monuments to Prince Zasekin, burlaks and comrade Sukhov from "White Sun of the Desert".

SamaraMonument to Prince Grigory Zasekin – the first governor of the city-fortress of Samara

In Samara, in general, quite a lot of monuments – from Uncle Stepa on Leningrad street to a very strange six-meter fountain-tree in honor of the 130th anniversary of the city water supply.

Samara

Near the embankment there is also the first point of the visit from the section "be sure": an institution called "At the bottom" near Zhigulevsky brewery.

The tiny bar is loved by the Samarans like a native father. To insult Batu in any case it is impossible, and to drink beer for 85 rubles for a mug – not an invitation, but an ultimatum.

Samara

Tourists do not always understand "At the bottom" with its simple and rude atmosphere, but "Zhigulevskoye" usually reconciles all with everyone.

Samara

Samara

Zhigulevsky brewery

Acquaintance with the unique Samara color is continued in the old center – for example, in the streets of Galaktionovskaya, Chapaevskaya and Sadovaya.

Samara

Crossroads of the streets of Lenin and Rabochaya

Here there are quiet huts, some of which the citizens bravely put in order by their own strength. With the rest of the monuments of wooden architecture, time, alas, manages relentlessly, turning them into rickety, half-rotten ruins.

SamaraThe Catholic Church in Frunze Street

Tourists are usually dragged along the pedestrian Leningradskaya street, but by and large there is nothing to do – only the hookah and creative cluster “House 77” remained from restaurants. But in the neighborhood of the bombastic Leningradka – a truly restaurant street Kuibyshev with an emphasis on Georgian cuisine and bar Molodogvardeyskaya with a variety of cocktails.

Samara

Crossroads of Kuibyshev Street and Leningradskaya Street

Samars themselves go for a good dinner at the addresses of Dachnaya 2, Dachnaya 2G and Kommunisticheskaya 90, where several restaurants of European cuisine are located in one block.

Another landmark place for gluttony is the gastronomic ranks on Gubernskiy: near the market on Mayakovsky Street there is a gallery of small cafes with Georgian and Uzbek cuisine.

They come here to eat for 200 rubles to the point where you have to unbuckle the belt – the fatty lagman in the city and the most flavorful pilaf, undoubtedly, are prepared by local chefs.

Samara

Most "commercial" The place in the city is on the other side of Samara – this is the Kirov market. I advise him to go by metro (about half an hour from the center): in the city they are used by units, since the location of the stations is not very convenient, but we are just at the address – besides "Kirov" – An incredibly beautiful station.

Samara

From the dungeon we go out into the world of Chinese losin, spinners, mannequins in gold chains and other strange and surprising things – there is a very special atmosphere and the most solid assortment of junk in the city.

Samara

Every Samaritan without hesitation will say that in memory of the city with him you need to carry sweets "Native expanses", which are produced at a local chocolate factory.

Another option is dried fish with "Bottom", but be careful, it smells sharp.

However, it is the smell of the river and beer, the irrepressible freedom and bitterness of the morning hangover – in general, this almost smells like a city on the Volga.

Samara

Samara

Samara

"Samara Arena"

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