For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphere

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphereIgor Stomakhin / Strana.ru The Tver Region. Tver. Monument to Afanasy Nikitin

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphere

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphere

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphere

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphere

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphere

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphere

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphere

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphere

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphere

Afanasiy Nikitin

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphere

Tver region. Tver. Monument to Athanasius Nikitin. Photo: Igor Stomakhin / Strana.ru

The Tver merchant Afanasy Nikitin is considered, if not the first, then one of the first Europeans to reach India. And not only in this he is the first. Nikitin is the first Russian "commercial traveler" known to us – a business tourist, as they would say today, unlike pilgrims or discoverers who conquered new lands. The first Russian author of the travelogue – "Walking for the Three Seas". Finally, the first Russian, keen on Indian culture, in which he plunged into place.

Afanasy Nikitin is also one of the most mysterious travelers. We know his book, but about him, in fact, we know almost nothing, except the travel routes. When and where he was born, it is not known. It was only a year of death – 1475. "Nikitin" is not even a surname, but a patronymic: the son of a peasant Nikita. The status of the "Tver merchant" is also in question – for a poor merchant Athanasius seems to be too educated a man of broad views and high connections. He traveled on a journey with the blessing of the great Tver prince Mikhail Borisovich, the Tver governor and Tver Bishop Gennady. There is a conspiracy thesis: if Afanasy was a kind of secret agent sent to search for the legendary diamonds of Golconda to replenish the treasury. Allegedly for this reason he continued the way even after his caravan was plundered by robbers, and the satellites withdrew from the distance. However, a more mundane version says that the engine of adventurism was the banal debts and the hope of gaining wealth.

The route of Nikitin is more or less clear. In the spring of 1468, he and his companions on two ships left Tver, heading for the Caspian Sea. This is the first of the "three seas". The Volga reached Nizhny Novgorod, then to Kazan, Saratov, Old and New Saray, sailed to Astrakhan. Under Astrakhan they were attacked by local bandits, who first seized one ship with goods, then another. They released the looted merchants, barring their way back. "And we went, weeping, on two ships to Derbent."

Tver region. Tver. Mosaic of the artist A.I. Golubtsova, dedicated to Athanasius Nikitin. A source:

On the way to Derbent, Nikitin’s companions did not escape the future Makhachkala – the ancient city of Tarki (now it is part of the capital of Dagestan). There, a storm broke one of the ships, and the travelers were again captured. From Derbent, already alone, Nikitin moved to Baku, from there to Iran, to the cities that he lists in his notes: Chapakur, Sari, Amol, Demavend, Ray, Kashan, Nain, Yazd, Sirjan, Tarom, Lar, Ormuz. Of the values ​​he had only a thoroughbred horse, which he hoped to profitably sell in India (profitably did not work). At the same time the son of the peasant Nikita spoke Farsi, Arabic and several Turkic languages, knew astronomy well, and could write well. In addition, he repeatedly emphasizes his firmness in the faith – in Islam Athanasius did not pass, although this would be an easy way out for a traveler in the East. I was very bored on Christian holidays and "books".

After the city, "Ormuz New, on the island lying", the Indian Sea began, the second of three. Ormuz was a large port in the Persian Gulf, from where Nikitin sailed to India – a quarter of a century before the Portuguese Vasco da Gama, officially opened the sea route to it for Europeans. Impressions from India were contradictory: Athanasius found it interesting, but – current tourists will be surprised – ruinously expensive for living.

Republic of Crimea. Theodosius. Monument to Athanasius Nikitin. Source: livejournal.com

Black Sea became the third sea. According to him, Nikitin finally sailed towards his homeland, having reached India via Persia to Turkish Trebizond. The next point was Theodosius. More precisely, the Genoa Kafa. Not everyone knows that this is the second after Afanasy Nikitin city, where there is also a monument to him.

Before his native Tver, and even before the actual Rus, he did not get there, he died en route to the territory of the principality of Lithuania, near Smolensk. The Moscow merchants, who were his companions, did not let Nikitin’s trip notes – brought them to Moscow, and "Khozhdenie" literally got caught in the annals. That reinforces the vivid theory of a complex merchant-agent under cover …

Surprisingly, today in Russia there is no museum Afanasy Nikitin. Although this fact can be understood – too mysterious character, too little is known about him. There are monuments in Feodosia and the echo of Tver monument. Afanasy Nikitin is a symbol of a city that did not forget his countryman even when he was hiding under the party nickname "Kalinin".

Alexander Pushkin

"Our everything", of course, could not fail to become a model for a Russian traveler as well – a little writer (not counting the same Nikitin) wound so many miles along the roads. This time the roads were purely domestic with a short exit to the land of Turkey, in Arzrum. Alexander Sergeevich Pushkin – the only person from his circle – all his life was "not allowed to travel abroad". Most of his travels were made either by a state order or by official need. That did not stop to create a whole body of great road poetry, and now any person who reads in Russian, from childhood, imagines the winter road, the coachman’s songs, the ringing of the bell, the swirling of demons in blizzards, and the eternal longing of the traveler around the house.

For three seas, around the world and in the stratospherePskov region. The Mikhailovsky Museum-Reserve. Press service of the museum /

The first journey of Pushkin, except for children’s trips to the grandmother’s estate Zakharovo, was the traditional transfer between the capitals, from Moscow to St. Petersburg, to the Tsarskoe Selo Lyceum. At the end of the Lyceum, the young poet went to the Mikhailovskoye family’s estate, but a serious adult voyage began a little later and not on his own. Pushkin’s "outrageous poems" were sent to the "half-link" to the south – "the floor", because formally it was an appointment for civil service in the Chisinau office, and later in Odessa. This was a mild punishment in comparison with the original intention to send him to the Solovetsky Monastery or to Siberia.

The points of the Pushkin routes of 1820-24 are Petersburg, Ekaterinoslav, Taganrog, Aksai, Novocherkassk, Georgievsk, Konstantinovsk, Pyatigorsk, Zheleznovodsk, Kislovodsk, Taman, Kerch, Feodosia, Gurzuf, Bakhchisaray, Simferopol, Chisinau, Kamenka, Kiev, Tulchin, Ackerman, Odessa, Izmail, Nikolaev, Elisavetgrad, Kremenchuk, Chernigov, Mogilev, Vitebsk … Pushkin was bored, made acquaintances, including with future Decembrists, fell in love, saw authentic traces of antiquity, imagined himself Ovid in exile and joined the Masonic lodge "Ovid" met the dawn at sea board the ship, he rushed to the capital – and, of course, wrote poetry. Internal freedom could not be limited, and new impressions gave food to the mind and imagination. So from the "rusty iron tube" of the broken fountain of the khan’s palace in Bakhchisaray was born the "Bakhchisarai fountain".

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphereRepublic of Crimea. Bakhchisaray. Bakhchsarai Palace Museum. Photo: Eugene Ptushka / Strana.ru

In 1824, the "half-link" was replaced by dismissal from the service and this reference, since the censorship uncovered Pushkin’s letter about "atheistic sentiments". He was sent to Mikhailovskoe under the supervision of his father. For two years Pushkin was confined to the neighborhood of the estate and dreamed of escaping from there by any means. The sharpening (also very fruitful) ended in 1926, when the new emperor Nicholas I summoned Pushkin to Moscow.

The second great journey of Pushkin is an expedition to the Caucasus and Turkey, together with the active army. He went there, for the first time, after wooing Natalia Goncharova and receiving a refusal. From this trip there was one more great "travelogue" – "Journey to Arzrum".

The next wide route in the early 1830s was connected with the collection of materials for the "History of the Pugachev Riot" and "The Captain’s Daughter". The journey through Pugachev’s places led Pushkin to Nizhny Novgorod, Kazan, Simbirsk, Lazykovo, Orenburg and Uralsk (the former Yaitsk town). The immersion in the material was complete: back home, to Boldino, he was leaving the same road that was taking the captive Pugachev.

For three seas, around the world and in the stratospherePskov region. Museum-Reserve A.S. Pushkin’s Mikhailovsky. Photo: Pavel Pelevin / Strana.ru

Since Pushkin documented his life in letters, they help to compile a "manual" for a Russian tourist of the first half of the 19th century. Firstly, having no own crew, A.S. all his life he traveled by public transport, that is, "on postal". In summer, for the broken Russian roads, the cart was best suited, in the winter – a kibitka, that is, a sleigh with a semicircular covered top. The stagecoach, which was fired between Moscow and Petersburg, Pushkin found experimentally unbearably slow and uncomfortable in organizing the movement. Naturally, he had to get injured on the way, when coachmen "overturned" him, and lay down at the postal station. A significant problem was the food of the traveler: often there was simply no food, and the owners were persuaded by the "fast day", or it was of terrible quality – with cockroaches, etc. Therefore, good institutions were awarded poetry recommendations, which we still remember – for example, about "Galiani or Kolioni" with their cutlets in Tver.

A vivid description of the road burdens is a half-joking response to his wife in October 1832, when she was jealous of A.S. because of the delay in the letter: "A Russian man on the road does not change clothes and, having reached the pig’s place, goes to the bathhouse, which is our second mother. Are you not baptized, that you do not know all this? "

The best and most atmospheric museum of Pushkin’s traveler is the Museum of his hero, that is, the Station-master in Võre. There you can see and pre-empt all the realities of the old Russian road – and transport, and stops on the way, and the living conditions of the passenger or coachman.

Yakov Sannikov

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphereShot from the film "The Land of Sannikov." Directed by Albert Mkrtchan, Leonid Popov. Mosfilm Studios, 1973

The merchant Sannikov may not have been a particularly outstanding traveler in terms of wanderings. But he gave us an exciting geographical legend, and with it – a song for all time that everything in this world is ghostly. The fate of Sannikov and his discovery, in general, confirms this.

About the merchant Sannikov, we again know a little. He was born in 1780 in Ust-Yanske (Yakutia), was engaged in the extraction of furs and mammoth bones, which was abundant in permafrost, and they were valued at least as much as Arctic fox. Apparently, he was attracted to solitary travels in the Far North, and he overcame the polar expanses even in winter alone. Sannikov was the first to reach the Stolbovoi Islands, Faddeevsky and Novaya Sibir and returned safely, having obtained from the government the preemptive right to collect mammoth bones on these islands.

In 1809 he became the foreman of the artel of industrialists, that is hunters, as part of the expedition of Matvey Gedenstrom, who explored the Novosibirsk Islands. In March of the same year, industrialists on dog sleds crossed the island of New Siberia from the south to the north, and there, from the northern shore, Sannikov discerned in the distance to the northeast a kind of condensation of blue. The "blue" for him was what foreshadowed the discovery of a new land among the polar sea. However, when the members of the expedition moved towards the "blue", there were found only ice mountains, usual for the polar sea.

But Sannikov was sure that in the north lies the undiscovered land. In the autumn of 1810, he found on the north-western shore of Kotelny Island, he again saw far away in the north, not just the blue, but the stone mountains. The head of the expedition had no reason to doubt the sight and instincts of Sannikov, and the alleged island was designated on the map as "the land seen by Sannikov". The third time Sannikov saw his "land" in the north another year later, when he was with his son on the island of Faddeevsky. The location of the ghost island was shifting, as if there were several or one of the islands moving around.

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphereIgor Stomakhin / Strana.ru The Tver Region. Tver. Monument to Afanasy Nikitin

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphere

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphere

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphere

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphere

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphere

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphere

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphere

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphere

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphere

Afanasiy Nikitin

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphereTver region. Tver. Monument to Athanasius Nikitin. Photo: Igor Stomakhin / Strana.ru

The Tver merchant Afanasy Nikitin is considered, if not the first, then one of the first Europeans to reach India. And not only in this he is the first. Nikitin is the first Russian "commercial traveler" known to us – a business tourist, as they would say today, unlike pilgrims or discoverers who conquered new lands. The first Russian author of the travelogue – "Walking for the Three Seas". Finally, the first Russian, keen on Indian culture, in which he plunged into place.

Afanasy Nikitin is also one of the most mysterious travelers. We know his book, but about him, in fact, we know almost nothing, except the travel routes. When and where he was born, it is not known. It was only a year of death – 1475. "Nikitin" is not even a surname, but a patronymic: the son of a peasant Nikita. The status of the "Tver merchant" is also in question – for a poor merchant Athanasius seems to be too educated a man of broad views and high connections. He traveled on a journey with the blessing of the great Tver prince Mikhail Borisovich, the Tver governor and Tver Bishop Gennady. There is a conspiracy thesis: if Afanasy was a kind of secret agent sent to search for the legendary diamonds of Golconda to replenish the treasury. Allegedly for this reason he continued the way even after his caravan was plundered by robbers, and the satellites withdrew from the distance. However, a more mundane version says that the engine of adventurism was the banal debts and the hope of gaining wealth.

The route of Nikitin is more or less clear. In the spring of 1468, he and his companions on two ships left Tver, heading for the Caspian Sea. This is the first of the "three seas". The Volga reached Nizhny Novgorod, then to Kazan, Saratov, Old and New Saray, sailed to Astrakhan. Under Astrakhan they were attacked by local bandits, who first seized one ship with goods, then another. They released the looted merchants, barring their way back. "And we went, weeping, on two ships to Derbent."

Tver region. Tver. Mosaic of the artist A.I. Golubtsova, dedicated to Athanasius Nikitin. A source:

On the way to Derbent, Nikitin’s companions did not escape the future Makhachkala – the ancient city of Tarki (now it is part of the capital of Dagestan). There, a storm broke one of the ships, and the travelers were again captured. From Derbent, already alone, Nikitin moved to Baku, from there to Iran, to the cities that he lists in his notes: Chapakur, Sari, Amol, Demavend, Ray, Kashan, Nain, Yazd, Sirjan, Tarom, Lar, Ormuz. Of the values ​​he had only a thoroughbred horse, which he hoped to profitably sell in India (profitably did not work). At the same time the son of the peasant Nikita spoke Farsi, Arabic and several Turkic languages, knew astronomy well, and could write well. In addition, he repeatedly emphasizes his firmness in the faith – in Islam Athanasius did not pass, although this would be an easy way out for a traveler in the East. I was very bored on Christian holidays and "books".

After the city, "Ormuz New, on the island lying", the Indian Sea began, the second of three. Ormuz was a large port in the Persian Gulf, from where Nikitin sailed to India – a quarter of a century before the Portuguese Vasco da Gama, officially opened the sea route to it for Europeans. Impressions from India were contradictory: Athanasius found it interesting, but – current tourists will be surprised – ruinously expensive for living.

Republic of Crimea. Theodosius. Monument to Athanasius Nikitin. Source: livejournal.com

Black Sea became the third sea. According to him, Nikitin finally sailed towards his homeland, having reached India via Persia to Turkish Trebizond. The next point was Theodosius. More precisely, the Genoa Kafa. Not everyone knows that this is the second after Afanasy Nikitin city, where there is also a monument to him.

Before his native Tver, and even before the actual Rus, he did not get there, he died en route to the territory of the principality of Lithuania, near Smolensk. The Moscow merchants, who were his companions, did not let Nikitin’s trip notes – brought them to Moscow, and "Khozhdenie" literally got caught in the annals. That reinforces the vivid theory of a complex merchant-agent under cover …

Surprisingly, today in Russia there is no museum Afanasy Nikitin. Although this fact can be understood – too mysterious character, too little is known about him. There are monuments in Feodosia and the echo of Tver monument. Afanasy Nikitin is a symbol of a city that did not forget his countryman even when he was hiding under the party nickname "Kalinin".

Alexander Pushkin

"Our everything", of course, could not fail to become a model for a Russian traveler as well – a little writer (not counting the same Nikitin) wound so many miles along the roads. This time the roads were purely domestic with a short exit to the land of Turkey, in Arzrum. Alexander Sergeevich Pushkin – the only person from his circle – all his life was "not allowed to travel abroad". Most of his travels were made either by a state order or by official need. That did not stop to create a whole body of great road poetry, and now any person who reads in Russian, from childhood, imagines the winter road, the coachman’s songs, the ringing of the bell, the swirling of demons in blizzards, and the eternal longing of the traveler around the house.

For three seas, around the world and in the stratospherePskov region. The Mikhailovsky Museum-Reserve. Press service of the museum /

The first journey of Pushkin, except for children’s trips to the grandmother’s estate Zakharovo, was the traditional transfer between the capitals, from Moscow to St. Petersburg, to the Tsarskoe Selo Lyceum. At the end of the Lyceum, the young poet went to the Mikhailovskoye family’s estate, but a serious adult voyage began a little later and not on his own. Pushkin’s "outrageous poems" were sent to the "half-link" to the south – "the floor", because formally it was an appointment for civil service in the Chisinau office, and later in Odessa. This was a mild punishment in comparison with the original intention to send him to the Solovetsky Monastery or to Siberia.

The points of the Pushkin routes of 1820-24 are Petersburg, Ekaterinoslav, Taganrog, Aksai, Novocherkassk, Georgievsk, Konstantinovsk, Pyatigorsk, Zheleznovodsk, Kislovodsk, Taman, Kerch, Feodosia, Gurzuf, Bakhchisaray, Simferopol, Chisinau, Kamenka, Kiev, Tulchin, Ackerman, Odessa, Izmail, Nikolaev, Elisavetgrad, Kremenchuk, Chernigov, Mogilev, Vitebsk … Pushkin was bored, made acquaintances, including with future Decembrists, fell in love, saw authentic traces of antiquity, imagined himself Ovid in exile and joined the Masonic lodge "Ovid" met the dawn at sea board the ship, he rushed to the capital – and, of course, wrote poetry. Internal freedom could not be limited, and new impressions gave food to the mind and imagination. So from the "rusty iron tube" of the broken fountain of the khan’s palace in Bakhchisaray was born the "Bakhchisarai fountain".

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphereRepublic of Crimea. Bakhchisaray. Bakhchsarai Palace Museum. Photo: Eugene Ptushka / Strana.ru

In 1824, the "half-link" was replaced by dismissal from the service and this reference, since the censorship uncovered Pushkin’s letter about "atheistic sentiments". He was sent to Mikhailovskoe under the supervision of his father. For two years Pushkin was confined to the neighborhood of the estate and dreamed of escaping from there by any means. The sharpening (also very fruitful) ended in 1926, when the new emperor Nicholas I summoned Pushkin to Moscow.

The second great journey of Pushkin is an expedition to the Caucasus and Turkey, together with the active army. He went there, for the first time, after wooing Natalia Goncharova and receiving a refusal. From this trip there was one more great "travelogue" – "Journey to Arzrum".

The next wide route in the early 1830s was connected with the collection of materials for the "History of the Pugachev Riot" and "The Captain’s Daughter". The journey through Pugachev’s places led Pushkin to Nizhny Novgorod, Kazan, Simbirsk, Lazykovo, Orenburg and Uralsk (the former Yaitsk town). The immersion in the material was complete: back home, to Boldino, he was leaving the same road that was taking the captive Pugachev.

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphere

Pskov region. Museum-Reserve A.S. Pushkin’s Mikhailovsky. Photo: Pavel Pelevin / Strana.ru

Since Pushkin documented his life in letters, they help to compile a "manual" for a Russian tourist of the first half of the 19th century. Firstly, having no own crew, A.S. all his life he traveled by public transport, that is, "on postal". In summer, for the broken Russian roads, the cart was best suited, in the winter – a kibitka, that is, a sleigh with a semicircular covered top. The stagecoach, which was fired between Moscow and Petersburg, Pushkin found experimentally unbearably slow and uncomfortable in organizing the movement. Naturally, he had to get injured on the way, when coachmen "overturned" him, and lay down at the postal station. A significant problem was the food of the traveler: often there was simply no food, and the owners were persuaded by the "fast day", or it was of terrible quality – with cockroaches, etc. Therefore, good institutions were awarded poetry recommendations, which we still remember – for example, about "Galiani or Kolioni" with their cutlets in Tver.

A vivid description of the road burdens is a half-joking response to his wife in October 1832, when she was jealous of A.S. because of the delay in the letter: "A Russian man on the road does not change clothes and, having reached the pig’s place, goes to the bathhouse, which is our second mother. Are you not baptized, that you do not know all this? "

The best and most atmospheric museum of Pushkin’s traveler is the Museum of his hero, that is, the Station-master in Võre. There you can see and pre-empt all the realities of the old Russian road – and transport, and stops on the way, and the living conditions of the passenger or coachman.

Yakov Sannikov

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphereShot from the film "The Land of Sannikov." Directed by Albert Mkrtchan, Leonid Popov. Mosfilm Studios, 1973

The merchant Sannikov may not have been a particularly outstanding traveler in terms of wanderings. But he gave us an exciting geographical legend, and with it – a song for all time that everything in this world is ghostly. The fate of Sannikov and his discovery, in general, confirms this.

About the merchant Sannikov, we again know a little. He was born in 1780 in Ust-Yanske (Yakutia), was engaged in the extraction of furs and mammoth bones, which was abundant in permafrost, and they were valued at least as much as Arctic fox. Apparently, he was attracted to solitary travels in the Far North, and he overcame the polar expanses even in winter alone. Sannikov was the first to reach the Stolbovoi Islands, Faddeevsky and Novaya Sibir and returned safely, having obtained from the government the preemptive right to collect mammoth bones on these islands.

In 1809 he became the foreman of the artel of industrialists, that is hunters, as part of the expedition of Matvey Gedenstrom, who explored the Novosibirsk Islands. In March of the same year, industrialists on dog sleds crossed the island of New Siberia from the south to the north, and there, from the northern shore, Sannikov discerned in the distance to the northeast a kind of condensation of blue. The "blue" for him was what foreshadowed the discovery of a new land among the polar sea. However, when the members of the expedition moved towards the "blue", there were found only ice mountains, usual for the polar sea.

But Sannikov was sure that in the north lies the undiscovered land. In the autumn of 1810, he found on the north-western shore of Kotelny Island, he again saw far away in the north, not just the blue, but the stone mountains. The head of the expedition had no reason to doubt the sight and instincts of Sannikov, and the alleged island was designated on the map as "the land seen by Sannikov". The third time Sannikov saw his "land" in the north another year later, when he was with his son on the island of Faddeevsky. The location of the ghost island was shifting, as if there were several or one of the islands moving around.

The search for Sannikov’s land was based on the conviction of the 19th century that the polar seas hide the Arctic continent. The earth was searched for more than a hundred years, and the point in search was set only in 1937, when the Soviet icebreaker Sadko explored the whole area where the earth was being searched, and the Arctic aviation confirmed the sailors’ conclusions – there is no land among the ice. This does not mean that it seemed to Sannikom. Most likely, he really saw, but not stone mountains, and rocks on an island of fossil ice. Such islands move and disappear.

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphere

Igor Stomakhin / Strana.ru The Tver Region. Tver. Monument to Afanasy Nikitin

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphere

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphere

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphere

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphere

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphere

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphere

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphere

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphere

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphere

Afanasiy Nikitin

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphereTver region. Tver. Monument to Athanasius Nikitin. Photo: Igor Stomakhin / Strana.ru

The Tver merchant Afanasy Nikitin is considered, if not the first, then one of the first Europeans to reach India. And not only in this he is the first. Nikitin is the first Russian "commercial traveler" known to us – a business tourist, as they would say today, unlike pilgrims or discoverers who conquered new lands. The first Russian author of the travelogue – "Walking for the Three Seas". Finally, the first Russian, keen on Indian culture, in which he plunged into place.

Afanasy Nikitin is also one of the most mysterious travelers. We know his book, but about him, in fact, we know almost nothing, except the travel routes. When and where he was born, it is not known. It was only a year of death – 1475. "Nikitin" is not even a surname, but a patronymic: the son of a peasant Nikita. The status of the "Tver merchant" is also in question – for a poor merchant Athanasius seems to be too educated a man of broad views and high connections. He traveled on a journey with the blessing of the great Tver prince Mikhail Borisovich, the Tver governor and Tver Bishop Gennady. There is a conspiracy thesis: if Afanasy was a kind of secret agent sent to search for the legendary diamonds of Golconda to replenish the treasury. Allegedly for this reason he continued the way even after his caravan was plundered by robbers, and the satellites withdrew from the distance. However, a more mundane version says that the engine of adventurism was the banal debts and the hope of gaining wealth.

The route of Nikitin is more or less clear. In the spring of 1468, he and his companions on two ships left Tver, heading for the Caspian Sea. This is the first of the "three seas". The Volga reached Nizhny Novgorod, then to Kazan, Saratov, Old and New Saray, sailed to Astrakhan. Under Astrakhan they were attacked by local bandits, who first seized one ship with goods, then another. They released the looted merchants, barring their way back. "And we went, weeping, on two ships to Derbent."

Tver region. Tver. Mosaic of the artist A.I. Golubtsova, dedicated to Athanasius Nikitin. A source:

On the way to Derbent, Nikitin’s companions did not escape the future Makhachkala – the ancient city of Tarki (now it is part of the capital of Dagestan). There, a storm broke one of the ships, and the travelers were again captured. From Derbent, already alone, Nikitin moved to Baku, from there to Iran, to the cities that he lists in his notes: Chapakur, Sari, Amol, Demavend, Ray, Kashan, Nain, Yazd, Sirjan, Tarom, Lar, Ormuz. Of the values ​​he had only a thoroughbred horse, which he hoped to profitably sell in India (profitably did not work). At the same time the son of the peasant Nikita spoke Farsi, Arabic and several Turkic languages, knew astronomy well, and could write well. In addition, he repeatedly emphasizes his firmness in the faith – in Islam Athanasius did not pass, although this would be an easy way out for a traveler in the East. I was very bored on Christian holidays and "books".

After the city, "Ormuz New, on the island lying", the Indian Sea began, the second of three. Ormuz was a large port in the Persian Gulf, from where Nikitin sailed to India – a quarter of a century before the Portuguese Vasco da Gama, officially opened the sea route to it for Europeans. Impressions from India were contradictory: Athanasius found it interesting, but – current tourists will be surprised – ruinously expensive for living.

Republic of Crimea. Theodosius. Monument to Athanasius Nikitin. Source: livejournal.com

Black Sea became the third sea. According to him, Nikitin finally sailed towards his homeland, having reached India via Persia to Turkish Trebizond. The next point was Theodosius. More precisely, the Genoa Kafa. Not everyone knows that this is the second after Afanasy Nikitin city, where there is also a monument to him.

Before his native Tver, and even before the actual Rus, he did not get there, he died en route to the territory of the principality of Lithuania, near Smolensk. The Moscow merchants, who were his companions, did not let Nikitin’s trip notes – brought them to Moscow, and "Khozhdenie" literally got caught in the annals. That reinforces the vivid theory of a complex merchant-agent under cover …

Surprisingly, today in Russia there is no museum Afanasy Nikitin. Although this fact can be understood – too mysterious character, too little is known about him. There are monuments in Feodosia and the echo of Tver monument. Afanasy Nikitin is a symbol of a city that did not forget his countryman even when he was hiding under the party nickname "Kalinin".

Alexander Pushkin

"Our everything", of course, could not fail to become a model for a Russian traveler as well – a little writer (not counting the same Nikitin) wound so many miles along the roads. This time the roads were purely domestic with a short exit to the land of Turkey, in Arzrum. Alexander Sergeevich Pushkin – the only person from his circle – all his life was "not allowed to travel abroad". Most of his travels were made either by a state order or by official need. That did not stop to create a whole body of great road poetry, and now any person who reads in Russian, from childhood, imagines the winter road, the coachman’s songs, the ringing of the bell, the swirling of demons in blizzards, and the eternal longing of the traveler around the house.

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphere

Pskov region. The Mikhailovsky Museum-Reserve. Press service of the museum /

The first journey of Pushkin, except for children’s trips to the grandmother’s estate Zakharovo, was the traditional transfer between the capitals, from Moscow to St. Petersburg, to the Tsarskoe Selo Lyceum. At the end of the Lyceum, the young poet went to the Mikhailovskoye family’s estate, but a serious adult voyage began a little later and not on his own. Pushkin’s "outrageous poems" were sent to the "half-link" to the south – "the floor", because formally it was an appointment for civil service in the Chisinau office, and later in Odessa. This was a mild punishment in comparison with the original intention to send him to the Solovetsky Monastery or to Siberia.

The points of the Pushkin routes of 1820-24 are Petersburg, Ekaterinoslav, Taganrog, Aksai, Novocherkassk, Georgievsk, Konstantinovsk, Pyatigorsk, Zheleznovodsk, Kislovodsk, Taman, Kerch, Feodosia, Gurzuf, Bakhchisaray, Simferopol, Chisinau, Kamenka, Kiev, Tulchin, Ackerman, Odessa, Izmail, Nikolaev, Elisavetgrad, Kremenchuk, Chernigov, Mogilev, Vitebsk … Pushkin was bored, made acquaintances, including with future Decembrists, fell in love, saw authentic traces of antiquity, imagined himself Ovid in exile and joined the Masonic lodge "Ovid" met the dawn at sea board the ship, he rushed to the capital – and, of course, wrote poetry. Internal freedom could not be limited, and new impressions gave food to the mind and imagination. So from the "rusty iron tube" of the broken fountain of the khan’s palace in Bakhchisaray was born the "Bakhchisarai fountain".

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphereRepublic of Crimea. Bakhchisaray. Bakhchsarai Palace Museum. Photo: Eugene Ptushka / Strana.ru

In 1824, the "half-link" was replaced by dismissal from the service and this reference, since the censorship uncovered Pushkin’s letter about "atheistic sentiments". He was sent to Mikhailovskoe under the supervision of his father. For two years Pushkin was confined to the neighborhood of the estate and dreamed of escaping from there by any means. The sharpening (also very fruitful) ended in 1926, when the new emperor Nicholas I summoned Pushkin to Moscow.

The second great journey of Pushkin is an expedition to the Caucasus and Turkey, together with the active army. He went there, for the first time, after wooing Natalia Goncharova and receiving a refusal. From this trip there was one more great "travelogue" – "Journey to Arzrum".

The next wide route in the early 1830s was connected with the collection of materials for the "History of the Pugachev Riot" and "The Captain’s Daughter". The journey through Pugachev’s places led Pushkin to Nizhny Novgorod, Kazan, Simbirsk, Lazykovo, Orenburg and Uralsk (the former Yaitsk town). The immersion in the material was complete: back home, to Boldino, he was leaving the same road that was taking the captive Pugachev.

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphere

Pskov region. Museum-Reserve A.S. Pushkin’s Mikhailovsky. Photo: Pavel Pelevin / Strana.ru

Since Pushkin documented his life in letters, they help to compile a "manual" for a Russian tourist of the first half of the 19th century. Firstly, having no own crew, A.S. all his life he traveled by public transport, that is, "on postal". In summer, for the broken Russian roads, the cart was best suited, in the winter – a kibitka, that is, a sleigh with a semicircular covered top. The stagecoach, which was fired between Moscow and Petersburg, Pushkin found experimentally unbearably slow and uncomfortable in organizing the movement. Naturally, he had to get injured on the way, when coachmen "overturned" him, and lay down at the postal station. A significant problem was the food of the traveler: often there was simply no food, and the owners were persuaded by the "fast day", or it was of terrible quality – with cockroaches, etc. Therefore, good institutions were awarded poetry recommendations, which we still remember – for example, about "Galiani or Kolioni" with their cutlets in Tver.

A vivid description of the road burdens is a half-joking response to his wife in October 1832, when she was jealous of A.S. because of the delay in the letter: "A Russian man on the road does not change clothes and, having reached the pig’s place, goes to the bathhouse, which is our second mother. Are you not baptized, that you do not know all this? "

The best and most atmospheric museum of Pushkin’s traveler is the Museum of his hero, that is, the Station-master in Võre. There you can see and pre-empt all the realities of the old Russian road – and transport, and stops on the way, and the living conditions of the passenger or coachman.

Yakov Sannikov

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphereShot from the film "The Land of Sannikov." Directed by Albert Mkrtchan, Leonid Popov. Mosfilm Studios, 1973

The merchant Sannikov may not have been a particularly outstanding traveler in terms of wanderings. But he gave us an exciting geographical legend, and with it – a song for all time that everything in this world is ghostly. The fate of Sannikov and his discovery, in general, confirms this.

About the merchant Sannikov, we again know a little. He was born in 1780 in Ust-Yanske (Yakutia), was engaged in the extraction of furs and mammoth bones, which was abundant in permafrost, and they were valued at least as much as Arctic fox. Apparently, he was attracted to solitary travels in the Far North, and he overcame the polar expanses even in winter alone. Sannikov was the first to reach the Stolbovoi Islands, Faddeevsky and Novaya Sibir and returned safely, having obtained from the government the preemptive right to collect mammoth bones on these islands.

In 1809 he became the foreman of the artel of industrialists, that is hunters, as part of the expedition of Matvey Gedenstrom, who explored the Novosibirsk Islands. In March of the same year, industrialists on dog sleds crossed the island of New Siberia from the south to the north, and there, from the northern shore, Sannikov discerned in the distance to the northeast a kind of condensation of blue. The "blue" for him was what foreshadowed the discovery of a new land among the polar sea. However, when the members of the expedition moved towards the "blue", there were found only ice mountains, usual for the polar sea.

But Sannikov was sure that in the north lies the undiscovered land. In the autumn of 1810, he found on the north-western shore of Kotelny Island, he again saw far away in the north, not just the blue, but the stone mountains. The head of the expedition had no reason to doubt the sight and instincts of Sannikov, and the alleged island was designated on the map as "the land seen by Sannikov". The third time Sannikov saw his "land" in the north another year later, when he was with his son on the island of Faddeevsky. The location of the ghost island was shifting, as if there were several or one of the islands moving around.

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphere

Igor Stomakhin / Strana.ru The Tver Region. Tver. Monument to Afanasy Nikitin

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphere

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphere

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphere

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphere

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphere

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphere

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphere

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphere

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphere

Afanasiy Nikitin

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphere

Tver region. Tver. Monument to Athanasius Nikitin. Photo: Igor Stomakhin / Strana.ru

The Tver merchant Afanasy Nikitin is considered, if not the first, then one of the first Europeans to reach India. And not only in this he is the first. Nikitin is the first Russian "commercial traveler" known to us – a business tourist, as they would say today, unlike pilgrims or discoverers who conquered new lands. The first Russian author of the travelogue – "Walking for the Three Seas". Finally, the first Russian, keen on Indian culture, in which he plunged into place.

Afanasy Nikitin is also one of the most mysterious travelers. We know his book, but about him, in fact, we know almost nothing, except the travel routes. When and where he was born, it is not known. It was only a year of death – 1475. "Nikitin" is not even a surname, but a patronymic: the son of a peasant Nikita. The status of the "Tver merchant" is also in question – for a poor merchant Athanasius seems to be too educated a man of broad views and high connections. He traveled on a journey with the blessing of the great Tver prince Mikhail Borisovich, the Tver governor and Tver Bishop Gennady. There is a conspiracy thesis: if Afanasy was a kind of secret agent sent to search for the legendary diamonds of Golconda to replenish the treasury. Allegedly for this reason he continued the way even after his caravan was plundered by robbers, and the satellites withdrew from the distance. However, a more mundane version says that the engine of adventurism was the banal debts and the hope of gaining wealth.

The route of Nikitin is more or less clear. In the spring of 1468, he and his companions on two ships left Tver, heading for the Caspian Sea. This is the first of the "three seas". The Volga reached Nizhny Novgorod, then to Kazan, Saratov, Old and New Saray, sailed to Astrakhan. Under Astrakhan they were attacked by local bandits, who first seized one ship with goods, then another. They released the looted merchants, barring their way back. "And we went, weeping, on two ships to Derbent."

Tver region. Tver. Mosaic of the artist A.I. Golubtsova, dedicated to Athanasius Nikitin. A source:

On the way to Derbent, Nikitin’s companions did not escape the future Makhachkala – the ancient city of Tarki (now it is part of the capital of Dagestan). There, a storm broke one of the ships, and the travelers were again captured. From Derbent, already alone, Nikitin moved to Baku, from there to Iran, to the cities that he lists in his notes: Chapakur, Sari, Amol, Demavend, Ray, Kashan, Nain, Yazd, Sirjan, Tarom, Lar, Ormuz. Of the values ​​he had only a thoroughbred horse, which he hoped to profitably sell in India (profitably did not work). At the same time the son of the peasant Nikita spoke Farsi, Arabic and several Turkic languages, knew astronomy well, and could write well. In addition, he repeatedly emphasizes his firmness in the faith – in Islam Athanasius did not pass, although this would be an easy way out for a traveler in the East. I was very bored on Christian holidays and "books".

After the city, "Ormuz New, on the island lying", the Indian Sea began, the second of three. Ormuz was a large port in the Persian Gulf, from where Nikitin sailed to India – a quarter of a century before the Portuguese Vasco da Gama, officially opened the sea route to it for Europeans. Impressions from India were contradictory: Athanasius found it interesting, but – current tourists will be surprised – ruinously expensive for living.

Republic of Crimea. Theodosius. Monument to Athanasius Nikitin. Source: livejournal.com

Black Sea became the third sea. According to him, Nikitin finally sailed towards his homeland, having reached India via Persia to Turkish Trebizond. The next point was Theodosius. More precisely, the Genoa Kafa. Not everyone knows that this is the second after Afanasy Nikitin city, where there is also a monument to him.

Before his native Tver, and even before the actual Rus, he did not get there, he died en route to the territory of the principality of Lithuania, near Smolensk. The Moscow merchants, who were his companions, did not let Nikitin’s trip notes – brought them to Moscow, and "Khozhdenie" literally got caught in the annals. That reinforces the vivid theory of a complex merchant-agent under cover …

Surprisingly, today in Russia there is no museum Afanasy Nikitin. Although this fact can be understood – too mysterious character, too little is known about him. There are monuments in Feodosia and the echo of Tver monument. Afanasy Nikitin is a symbol of a city that did not forget his countryman even when he was hiding under the party nickname "Kalinin".

Alexander Pushkin

"Our everything", of course, could not fail to become a model for a Russian traveler as well – a little writer (not counting the same Nikitin) wound so many miles along the roads. This time the roads were purely domestic with a short exit to the land of Turkey, in Arzrum. Alexander Sergeevich Pushkin – the only person from his circle – all his life was "not allowed to travel abroad". Most of his travels were made either by a state order or by official need. That did not stop to create a whole body of great road poetry, and now any person who reads in Russian, from childhood, imagines the winter road, the coachman’s songs, the ringing of the bell, the swirling of demons in blizzards, and the eternal longing of the traveler around the house.

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphere

Pskov region. The Mikhailovsky Museum-Reserve. Press service of the museum /

The first journey of Pushkin, except for children’s trips to the grandmother’s estate Zakharovo, was the traditional transfer between the capitals, from Moscow to St. Petersburg, to the Tsarskoe Selo Lyceum. At the end of the Lyceum, the young poet went to the Mikhailovskoye family’s estate, but a serious adult voyage began a little later and not on his own. Pushkin’s "outrageous poems" were sent to the "half-link" to the south – "the floor", because formally it was an appointment for civil service in the Chisinau office, and later in Odessa. This was a mild punishment in comparison with the original intention to send him to the Solovetsky Monastery or to Siberia.

The points of the Pushkin routes of 1820-24 are Petersburg, Ekaterinoslav, Taganrog, Aksai, Novocherkassk, Georgievsk, Konstantinovsk, Pyatigorsk, Zheleznovodsk, Kislovodsk, Taman, Kerch, Feodosia, Gurzuf, Bakhchisaray, Simferopol, Chisinau, Kamenka, Kiev, Tulchin, Ackerman, Odessa, Izmail, Nikolaev, Elisavetgrad, Kremenchuk, Chernigov, Mogilev, Vitebsk … Pushkin was bored, made acquaintances, including with future Decembrists, fell in love, saw authentic traces of antiquity, imagined himself Ovid in exile and joined the Masonic lodge "Ovid" met the dawn at sea board the ship, he rushed to the capital – and, of course, wrote poetry. Internal freedom could not be limited, and new impressions gave food to the mind and imagination. So from the "rusty iron tube" of the broken fountain of the khan’s palace in Bakhchisaray was born the "Bakhchisarai fountain".

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphereRepublic of Crimea. Bakhchisaray. Bakhchsarai Palace Museum. Photo: Eugene Ptushka / Strana.ru

In 1824, the "half-link" was replaced by dismissal from the service and this reference, since the censorship uncovered Pushkin’s letter about "atheistic sentiments". He was sent to Mikhailovskoe under the supervision of his father. For two years Pushkin was confined to the neighborhood of the estate and dreamed of escaping from there by any means. The sharpening (also very fruitful) ended in 1926, when the new emperor Nicholas I summoned Pushkin to Moscow.

The second great journey of Pushkin is an expedition to the Caucasus and Turkey, together with the active army. He went there, for the first time, after wooing Natalia Goncharova and receiving a refusal. From this trip there was one more great "travelogue" – "Journey to Arzrum".

The next wide route in the early 1830s was connected with the collection of materials for the "History of the Pugachev Riot" and "The Captain’s Daughter". The journey through Pugachev’s places led Pushkin to Nizhny Novgorod, Kazan, Simbirsk, Lazykovo, Orenburg and Uralsk (the former Yaitsk town). The immersion in the material was complete: back home, to Boldino, he was leaving the same road that was taking the captive Pugachev.

For three seas, around the world and in the stratospherePskov region. Museum-Reserve A.S. Pushkin’s Mikhailovsky. Photo: Pavel Pelevin / Strana.ru

Since Pushkin documented his life in letters, they help to compile a "manual" for a Russian tourist of the first half of the 19th century. Firstly, having no own crew, A.S. all his life he traveled by public transport, that is, "on postal". In summer, for the broken Russian roads, the cart was best suited, in the winter – a kibitka, that is, a sleigh with a semicircular covered top. The stagecoach, which was fired between Moscow and Petersburg, Pushkin found experimentally unbearably slow and uncomfortable in organizing the movement. Naturally, he had to get injured on the way, when coachmen "overturned" him, and lay down at the postal station. A significant problem was the food of the traveler: often there was simply no food, and the owners were persuaded by the "fast day", or it was of terrible quality – with cockroaches, etc. Therefore, good institutions were awarded poetry recommendations, which we still remember – for example, about "Galiani or Kolioni" with their cutlets in Tver.

A vivid description of the road burdens is a half-joking response to his wife in October 1832, when she was jealous of A.S. because of the delay in the letter: "A Russian man on the road does not change clothes and, having reached the pig’s place, goes to the bathhouse, which is our second mother. Are you not baptized, that you do not know all this? "

The best and most atmospheric museum of Pushkin’s traveler is the Museum of his hero, that is, the Station-master in Võre. There you can see and pre-empt all the realities of the old Russian road – and transport, and stops on the way, and the living conditions of the passenger or coachman.

Yakov Sannikov

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphere

Shot from the film "The Land of Sannikov." Directed by Albert Mkrtchan, Leonid Popov. Mosfilm Studios, 1973

The merchant Sannikov may not have been a particularly outstanding traveler in terms of wanderings. But he gave us an exciting geographical legend, and with it – a song for all time that everything in this world is ghostly. The fate of Sannikov and his discovery, in general, confirms this.

About the merchant Sannikov, we again know a little. He was born in 1780 in Ust-Yanske (Yakutia), was engaged in the extraction of furs and mammoth bones, which was abundant in permafrost, and they were valued at least as much as Arctic fox. Apparently, he was attracted to solitary travels in the Far North, and he overcame the polar expanses even in winter alone. Sannikov was the first to reach the Stolbovoi Islands, Faddeevsky and Novaya Sibir and returned safely, having obtained from the government the preemptive right to collect mammoth bones on these islands.

In 1809 he became the foreman of the artel of industrialists, that is hunters, as part of the expedition of Matvey Gedenstrom, who explored the Novosibirsk Islands. In March of the same year, industrialists on dog sleds crossed the island of New Siberia from the south to the north, and there, from the northern shore, Sannikov discerned in the distance to the northeast a kind of condensation of blue. The "blue" for him was what foreshadowed the discovery of a new land among the polar sea. However, when the members of the expedition moved towards the "blue", there were found only ice mountains, usual for the polar sea.

But Sannikov was sure that in the north lies the undiscovered land. In the autumn of 1810, he found on the north-western shore of Kotelny Island, he again saw far away in the north, not just the blue, but the stone mountains. The head of the expedition had no reason to doubt the sight and instincts of Sannikov, and the alleged island was designated on the map as "the land seen by Sannikov". The third time Sannikov saw his "land" in the north another year later, when he was with his son on the island of Faddeevsky. The location of the ghost island was shifting, as if there were several or one of the islands moving around.

The search for Sannikov’s land was based on the conviction of the 19th century that the polar seas hide the Arctic continent. The earth was searched for more than a hundred years, and the point in search was set only in 1937, when the Soviet icebreaker Sadko explored the whole area where the earth was being searched, and the Arctic aviation confirmed the sailors’ conclusions – there is no land among the ice. This does not mean that it seemed to Sannikom. Most likely, he really saw, but not stone mountains, and rocks on an island of fossil ice. Such islands move and disappear.

The research of the Sadko icebreaker was closely watched by Vladimir Obruchev, a scientist and writer. Obruchev’s novel The Land of Sannikov was written 10 years before. His 1973 film adaptation made the ghost island as popular as the Bermuda Triangle.

Shot from the film "The Land of Sannikov." Directed by Albert Mkrtchan, Leonid Popov. Mosfilm Studios, 1973

Yakov Sannikov himself also dissolved like a polar ghost. After 1811 there is no documentary information about him, only a hundred years later the Soviet pilot Alexei Gratsiansky found a tombstone with the inscription "Yakov Sannikov" in the lower reaches of Lena. Precisely, it can be said that the descendants of Sannikov inherited his craving for the North and also were associated with polar research – the son of Fyodor and the grandson of Jacob helped equip the expeditions of Edward Toll and Fridtjof Nansen.

Nikolay Romanov

Tsarevich Nikolai Alexandrovich. 1891 Source:

Russian emperors from the Romanov dynasty traveled often enough, but mostly in Europe. The example of the last king is special: being an heir, he went on a voyage to the East, overcoming a route longer than 51 thousand kilometers. The Tsar’s cruiser "Memory of Azov" traveled around southeast Asia, and on the return journey Nikolai Alexandrovich’s expedition moved overland across Siberia: from Vladivostok through Ussuriysk, Khabarovsk, Blagoveshchensk, Nerchinsk, Chita, Irkutsk, Tomsk, Surgut, Tobolsk, Tara, Omsk and Orenburg, where by train to St. Petersburg.

Nicholas started in Gatchina, then there was Warsaw (at that time part of the Russian Empire), and then dizzily: Vienna – Trieste – Athens – Alexandria – Port Said – Cairo, then India from Bombay to Calcutta, then Ceylon, Singapore, the island of Java, Thailand, Vietnam. From Saigon to Nanjing, Hong Kong and Shanghai, then Japan: Nagasaki-Kobe-Kyoto. On the one hand, the traditional journey of the heir to the throne, who knows the world. Unusual is the route, which also has a geopolitical meaning: Russia unobtrusively designated itself as a key player in Asia.

For 22-year-old Nicholas, it was both a great adventure, and a vague foretaste of the terrible end of the Romanov dynasty. On the way back, when the ship "Nicholas" stopped in Tobolsk, the heir settled in the same Governor’s house, where he and his family would be placed during the last exile. A traces of blood on the shirt of the Tsesarevich – the memory of the "incident in Otsu", where a Japanese fanatic patriot attacked Nicholas – was used for genetic examination of the remains of the last emperor.

But before the Tobolsk link was far away, and while Nicholas experienced romantic events. He not only visited the most exotic countries, but got a fashionable color tattoo, talked to geishas and received a scar from a sword blow. This attempt caused an earlier return than expected. The heir’s way back was marked by magnificent memorial constructions, triumphal arches and obelisks in the cities where he stayed. After 1917, these structures, for obvious reasons, were destroyed. In recent decades, some of them have been restored – as, for example, the Arc de Triomphe in Vladivostok. The main thing is the Transsib, which was officially founded on May 31, 1981 with the personal participation of the future king. Nikolay personally drove the wheelbarrow of the earth to the place where the rail was laid.

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphereTsarevich Nikolai Alexandrovich (fifth from left) during the trip. Egypt. 1890. Source:

St. Petersburg. The Cabinet of Curiosities. The doll "Geisha Omatsu". Photo by: kunstkamera.ru

In addition, from the journey the prince brought numerous exotic trophies and gifts, magnificent photographs. Especially there were a lot of Japanese rarities, since after the attempt of Nicholas, the family of the Emperor Meiji and ordinary Japanese citizens were literally showered with "excusable" gifts. Some of the gifts were later kept in the Winter Palace and Anichkov Palace, part was transferred to the Kunstkamera. After the revolution, these things were forced to hide their "royal origin", and visitors to the Kunstkamera did not have the opportunity to see the most interesting – for example, a portrait of a geisha who attracted the attention of the last emperor. Only in 2010, the Oriental trip of Nicholas Alexandrovich inspired museum workers to the large exhibition "Panorama of Empires" in the Museum-Reserve "Tsaritsyno".

Nevertheless, for many years the entrance to the Kunstkamera was guarded by two expressive figures – the Ceylon demon-keeper and the Vietnamese god of hunting with tusks, mountains and leopard skin. Few of the visitors imagined that the Vietnamese chimera came to Russia with the future and the last king.

For three seas, around the world and in the stratosphere

Fedor Konyukhov. Photo: Igor Stomakhin / Strana.ru

Fedor Konyukhov is our contemporary, but he seems to be either a "Renaissance man" or an alien from some other world without banal rules and boundaries. Unlike the vast majority of travelers, Konyukhov does not have "specialization": he went on a journey and sailing, and dog sledding, in climbing equipment and in a balloon. He visited both poles and all the highest peaks of the world, five times walked around the world, 17 times crossed the Atlantic Ocean, including one on a rowing boat. Not all of his expeditions were triumphant – Konyukhova, judging by the frequent headlines of the news, almost all rescue services in the world saved. Nevertheless, in our time he embodies an uncontrollable desire to move forward and rediscover the world.

Fedor Konyukhov. Photo: Igor Stomakhin / Strana.ru

Biography Konyukhov as a pest as his routes. He was born in Zaporozhye, studied at the carver-restorer in Bobruisk, in Odessa graduated from the nautical school, in Leningrad – the Arctic School and the Theological Academy. In 2010, the famous traveler was ordained priestly priest of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church (MP). This is not a sudden conversion, but a family tradition: the priests were the grandfather Konyukhov and the brother of the grandfather, canonized as the new martyr Nikolai Konyukhov. Fyodor Filippovich repeatedly told that at critical moments he was praying to Nicholas the Wonderworker and healer Panteleimon. The best place on earth is called the Trinity-Sergius Lavra.

This year Konyukhov has two grandiose projects: a round-the-world trip on a rowing boat through the three legendary capes of the Southern Hemisphere – Cape Horn, Cape of Good Hope, Cape Luin and flight into the stratosphere. Specially designed hermetic capsule of the thermal balloon "Russia" should raise the indefatigable father of Fyodor by 25 thousand meters.

Fedor Konyukhov during testing of a capsule of a thermal balloon. A photo:

Fedor Konyukhov is always on the road, but "localize" if not himself, then his multi-faceted worldview can be in Moscow, in his expeditionary headquarters. This is almost the center of the capital, Sadovnicheskaya street, 77. In the courtyard of the usual Moscow house, in a very small space, there are the museum-workshop of Konyukhov, the chapel of St. Nicholas the Wonderworker and the chapel of St. Fedor Ushakov, the museum of anchors in the open air, many monuments and commemorative plaques in honor of people close to Konyukhov in spirit – from Admiral Nakhimov to Nikolai Gumilev. In the workshop there is a boat "Turgoyak", on which Konyukhov alone crossed the Pacific Ocean. A place in a good way is insane – as if you get into the dream of a great traveler.

Igor Krutoy lost 20 kg due to diabetes

Igor Krutoy lost 20 kg due to diabetesIgor Krutoy

Rumors that the maestro has health problems appeared several years ago. And in the winter of 2017, under cover of secrecy, Igor Yakovlevich underwent surgery and a course of rehabilitation in America. It was after this that there was talk that Krutoy supposedly had cancer. He preferred not to comment on his condition, but continued to lose weight rapidly. As we managed to find out "StarHitu", the musician is not at all oncology, but diabetes, with which he lives for several years.

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"Igor Yakovlevich has always been slim, but lately he has lost another 15 kilograms," StarHit was told in the environment of Krutoy. – Of course, everyone is very worried, support him. Anything was fiction about the diagnosis, but, thank God, he does not have any cancer. And weight loss is associated with a strict diet prescribed by specialists, which he carefully adheres to. Sometimes it seems that Igor Yakovlevich does not eat anything at all! And with all this while also actively engaged in sports. Loves big tennis, respects the treadmill and walks in the fresh air. "

Igor Krutoy lost 20 kg due to diabetes

Igor Krutoy together with his wife // Photo: social networks

The diet of the 63-year-old composer is dominated by plant foods, fruits and vegetables, meat and fish, steamed. Steep refused to roast, spicy, fat, and almost completely excluded the sweet. Although, according to the spouse, he used to like to treat himself to harmful food. In one of the interviews, he boasted that Olga was cooking amazingly, and especially she was able to mutton. However, she did not have to part with it.

Football legends: Zinedine Zidane. The last blow to the head

What did the legendary Frenchman Marco Materazzi actually say in the scandalous episode of the 2006 World Cup finals?

Football legends: Zinedine Zidane. The last blow to the headZinedine Zidane gets a red card for hitting Marco Materazzi

"The 2006 World Champion was determined in the penalty shootout, at the same time, two goals were scored. Goals: Zidane and Materazzi. Yes, they are. I think that many simply do not remember that the participants of one of the most scandalous episodes in the modern history of the world championships scored both goals in this match.

But I almost do not doubt: everyone perfectly remember how in the 110th minute of the match in extra time Zidane hit the head of the Italian and got a red card, "says Georgy Cherdantsev, sports commentator and author of the football encyclopedia"History of World Championships»(Publishing house AST).

The last blow Zidane

On the air Canal + the former captain of the French team explained the reasons for his act. According to the Frenchman, the Italian defender brutally insulted his mother and sister, and repeated his words several times. Zidane said that the incident occurred after Materazzi grabbed him by the T-shirt. "I asked him to stop clinging to me for a shirt, explaining that after the end of the match and so I can give it to her.

After that, he several times pronounced an insult to my mother and sister. I tried not to react, but words can sometimes be more offensive than actions. His words deeply offended me, and I could not resist, everything happened very quickly, but I’m not going to apologize to Materazzi for striking him. If I apologize, it turns out, he had a reason to insult me ​​and my relatives? No, I can not apologize to him, "Zidane said. "I just reacted to his words."

At the same legendary French football player stressed that he apologizes to the millions of children who watched the final match France – Italy on TV: "My actions can not be justified. I want to report this openly and honestly, as I understand perfectly well that millions of fans watched the game, among which there were a lot of children. "

During the interview, Zidane was not asked if Materazzi’s insults were of a racist nature. The Italian defender, provoking Zidane to strike, admitted that he was wrong, hitting the Frenchman in his own words. But at the same time he rejected all accusations that he called Zidane a terrorist and insulted his relatives.

It was immediately after the match, and Materazzi for a long time did not explain what had happened. He even published a book, "What I Really Say to Zidane," in which he gave 250 versions of a phrase of varying degrees of wit. A year after the incident, Materazzi decided to answer the question what exactly he said to Zidane.

Football legends: Zinedine Zidane. The last blow to the headPhoto: courtesy of AST Publishing House

In an interview with the Italian magazine Sorrisi and Canzoni, Materazzi admitted that the phrase sounded like this: "Preferisco la puttana di tua sorella »(« I prefer your bitch sister »). This is in response to Zidane’s offer to give after the game Materazzi jersey. If this is the case, then it is clear that Zidane – who grew up in the Muslim quarter of Marseilles, a native of Algeria – could not forgive such an insult. In his homeland, in the Marseilles quarter, La Castellan was not exactly sure what Zidane had struck Materazzi for, and whether he did it right.

Immediately after the final match, speech recognition experts were involved in analyzing the video recording of the incident, but no final decision was made. On this episode on July 20, 2006, the FIFA Control and Disciplinary Committee, investigating the event, disqualified Zidane for three games and imposed a fine of 7.5 thousand Swiss francs, and Materazzi for two games and fined 5,000 francs.

Since immediately after the match Zidane completed his football career, the disqualification was replaced by three-day public works, during which Zinedine Zidane taught the younger generation of football. While the CDC analyzed the video, it was coined and even hit the top of the French music charts with the hit "Coup de Boule", which was recorded for 30 minutes by two nimble French producers.

The song for the African melody with recitative "Zidane hit him" sold 60,000 copies in just one week after the World Cup final. For Zidane, one of the best players in the history of football, that match with Italy was the last in his brilliant career, and the episode with Materazzi did not stop him from getting the "Golden Ball" as the best player of the World Cup.

Football legends: Zinedine Zidane. The last blow to the headFinals of the World Cup 2006. Zinedine Zidane and Gianluigi Buffon

To understand the nature of what happened on July 9, 2006 at the 110th minute of the World Cup final, you need to return 25 years ago to the Marseilles district of La Castellan, in the streets of which the immigrant son from Algeria played in his childhood. It was not easy – to grow in the poor quarter of a huge port city, where refugees from the North African wars that France led in the middle of the 20th century found refuge.

It was there, on the streets of La Castellana, Zidane, whose second name Yazid, under which he was more known to peers and first clubmates, mastered the trick now known to any football-playing boy called "Zidane’s feint" – a turn in motion with the ball 360 degrees. This reception in Russian has several names: snail, turntable, roulette. In European languages ​​it is sometimes called "Marseille roulette", because this technique was especially popular in street football of Marseille.

Once and for all having won the right to do with the ball anything, Yazid focused on football. Once at a tournament among the local Mediterranean teams, he saw the scout of the Cannes club Varro. That’s when he was told: "Do not cling to him." And then they added: "Actually, he’s a good guy, a real fighter from street football." Soon Zidane changed the immigrant suburbs of Marseilles to the splendid Croisette in Cannes, on which no longer refugees from North Africa were walking, but real movie stars.

What did the legendary Frenchman Marco Materazzi actually say in the scandalous episode of the 2006 World Cup finals?

Football legends: Zinedine Zidane. The last blow to the head

Zinedine Zidane gets a red card for hitting Marco Materazzi

"The 2006 World Champion was determined in the penalty shootout, at the same time, two goals were scored. Goals: Zidane and Materazzi. Yes, they are. I think that many simply do not remember that the participants of one of the most scandalous episodes in the modern history of the world championships scored both goals in this match.

But I almost do not doubt: everyone perfectly remember how in the 110th minute of the match in extra time Zidane hit the head of the Italian and got a red card, "says Georgy Cherdantsev, sports commentator and author of the football encyclopedia"History of World Championships»(Publishing house AST).

What did the legendary Frenchman Marco Materazzi actually say in the scandalous episode of the 2006 World Cup finals?

Football legends: Zinedine Zidane. The last blow to the head

Zinedine Zidane gets a red card for hitting Marco Materazzi

"The 2006 World Champion was determined in the penalty shootout, at the same time, two goals were scored. Goals: Zidane and Materazzi. Yes, they are. I think that many simply do not remember that the participants of one of the most scandalous episodes in the modern history of the world championships scored both goals in this match.

But I almost do not doubt: everyone perfectly remember how in the 110th minute of the match in extra time Zidane hit the head of the Italian and got a red card, "says Georgy Cherdantsev, sports commentator and author of the football encyclopedia"History of World Championships»(Publishing house AST).

The last blow Zidane

On the air Canal + the former captain of the French team explained the reasons for his act. According to the Frenchman, the Italian defender brutally insulted his mother and sister, and repeated his words several times. Zidane said that the incident occurred after Materazzi grabbed him by the T-shirt. "I asked him to stop clinging to me for a shirt, explaining that after the end of the match and so I can give it to her.

After that, he several times pronounced an insult to my mother and sister. I tried not to react, but words can sometimes be more offensive than actions. His words deeply offended me, and I could not resist, everything happened very quickly, but I’m not going to apologize to Materazzi for striking him. If I apologize, it turns out, he had a reason to insult me ​​and my relatives? No, I can not apologize to him, "Zidane said. "I just reacted to his words."

At the same legendary French football player stressed that he apologizes to the millions of children who watched the final match France – Italy on TV: "My actions can not be justified. I want to report this openly and honestly, as I understand perfectly well that millions of fans watched the game, among which there were a lot of children. "

During the interview, Zidane was not asked if Materazzi’s insults were of a racist nature. The Italian defender, provoking Zidane to strike, admitted that he was wrong, hitting the Frenchman in his own words. But at the same time he rejected all accusations that he called Zidane a terrorist and insulted his relatives.

It was immediately after the match, and Materazzi for a long time did not explain what had happened. He even published a book, "What I Really Say to Zidane," in which he gave 250 versions of a phrase of varying degrees of wit. A year after the incident, Materazzi decided to answer the question what exactly he said to Zidane.

Football legends: Zinedine Zidane. The last blow to the headPhoto: courtesy of AST Publishing House

In an interview with the Italian magazine Sorrisi and Canzoni, Materazzi admitted that the phrase sounded like this: "Preferisco la puttana di tua sorella »(« I prefer your bitch sister »). This is in response to Zidane’s offer to give after the game Materazzi jersey. If this is the case, then it is clear that Zidane – who grew up in the Muslim quarter of Marseilles, a native of Algeria – could not forgive such an insult. In his homeland, in the Marseilles quarter, La Castellan was not exactly sure what Zidane had struck Materazzi for, and whether he did it right.

Immediately after the final match, speech recognition experts were involved in analyzing the video recording of the incident, but no final decision was made. On this episode on July 20, 2006, the FIFA Control and Disciplinary Committee, investigating the event, disqualified Zidane for three games and imposed a fine of 7.5 thousand Swiss francs, and Materazzi for two games and fined 5,000 francs.

Since immediately after the match Zidane completed his football career, the disqualification was replaced by three-day public works, during which Zinedine Zidane taught the younger generation of football. While the CDC analyzed the video, it was coined and even hit the top of the French music charts with the hit "Coup de Boule", which was recorded for 30 minutes by two nimble French producers.

The song for the African melody with recitative "Zidane hit him" sold 60,000 copies in just one week after the World Cup final. For Zidane, one of the best players in the history of football, that match with Italy was the last in his brilliant career, and the episode with Materazzi did not stop him from getting the "Golden Ball" as the best player of the World Cup.

Football legends: Zinedine Zidane. The last blow to the head

Finals of the World Cup 2006. Zinedine Zidane and Gianluigi Buffon

To understand the nature of what happened on July 9, 2006 at the 110th minute of the World Cup final, you need to return 25 years ago to the Marseilles district of La Castellan, in the streets of which the immigrant son from Algeria played in his childhood. It was not easy – to grow in the poor quarter of a huge port city, where refugees from the North African wars that France led in the middle of the 20th century found refuge.

It was there, on the streets of La Castellana, Zidane, whose second name Yazid, under which he was more known to peers and first clubmates, mastered the trick now known to any football-playing boy called "Zidane’s feint" – a turn in motion with the ball 360 degrees. This reception in Russian has several names: snail, turntable, roulette. In European languages ​​it is sometimes called "Marseille roulette", because this technique was especially popular in street football of Marseille.

Once and for all having won the right to do with the ball anything, Yazid focused on football. Once at a tournament among the local Mediterranean teams, he saw the scout of the Cannes club Varro. That’s when he was told: "Do not cling to him." And then they added: "Actually, he’s a good guy, a real fighter from street football." Soon Zidane changed the immigrant suburbs of Marseilles to the splendid Croisette in Cannes, on which no longer refugees from North Africa were walking, but real movie stars.

What did the legendary Frenchman Marco Materazzi actually say in the scandalous episode of the 2006 World Cup finals?

Football legends: Zinedine Zidane. The last blow to the headZinedine Zidane gets a red card for hitting Marco Materazzi

"The 2006 World Champion was determined in the penalty shootout, at the same time, two goals were scored. Goals: Zidane and Materazzi. Yes, they are. I think that many simply do not remember that the participants of one of the most scandalous episodes in the modern history of the world championships scored both goals in this match.

But I almost do not doubt: everyone perfectly remember how in the 110th minute of the match in extra time Zidane hit the head of the Italian and got a red card, "says Georgy Cherdantsev, sports commentator and author of the football encyclopedia"History of World Championships»(Publishing house AST).

The last blow Zidane

On the air Canal + the former captain of the French team explained the reasons for his act. According to the Frenchman, the Italian defender brutally insulted his mother and sister, and repeated his words several times. Zidane said that the incident occurred after Materazzi grabbed him by the T-shirt. "I asked him to stop clinging to me for a shirt, explaining that after the end of the match and so I can give it to her.

After that, he several times pronounced an insult to my mother and sister. I tried not to react, but words can sometimes be more offensive than actions. His words deeply offended me, and I could not resist, everything happened very quickly, but I’m not going to apologize to Materazzi for striking him. If I apologize, it turns out, he had a reason to insult me ​​and my relatives? No, I can not apologize to him, "Zidane said. "I just reacted to his words."

At the same legendary French football player stressed that he apologizes to the millions of children who watched the final match France – Italy on TV: "My actions can not be justified. I want to report this openly and honestly, as I understand perfectly well that millions of fans watched the game, among which there were a lot of children. "

During the interview, Zidane was not asked if Materazzi’s insults were of a racist nature. The Italian defender, provoking Zidane to strike, admitted that he was wrong, hitting the Frenchman in his own words. But at the same time he rejected all accusations that he called Zidane a terrorist and insulted his relatives.

It was immediately after the match, and Materazzi for a long time did not explain what had happened. He even published a book, "What I Really Say to Zidane," in which he gave 250 versions of a phrase of varying degrees of wit. A year after the incident, Materazzi decided to answer the question what exactly he said to Zidane.

Football legends: Zinedine Zidane. The last blow to the headPhoto: courtesy of AST Publishing House

In an interview with the Italian magazine Sorrisi and Canzoni, Materazzi admitted that the phrase sounded like this: "Preferisco la puttana di tua sorella »(« I prefer your bitch sister »). This is in response to Zidane’s offer to give after the game Materazzi jersey. If this is the case, then it is clear that Zidane – who grew up in the Muslim quarter of Marseilles, a native of Algeria – could not forgive such an insult. In his homeland, in the Marseilles quarter, La Castellan was not exactly sure what Zidane had struck Materazzi for, and whether he did it right.

Immediately after the final match, speech recognition experts were involved in analyzing the video recording of the incident, but no final decision was made. On this episode on July 20, 2006, the FIFA Control and Disciplinary Committee, investigating the event, disqualified Zidane for three games and imposed a fine of 7.5 thousand Swiss francs, and Materazzi for two games and fined 5,000 francs.

Since immediately after the match Zidane completed his football career, the disqualification was replaced by three-day public works, during which Zinedine Zidane taught the younger generation of football. While the CDC analyzed the video, it was coined and even hit the top of the French music charts with the hit "Coup de Boule", which was recorded for 30 minutes by two nimble French producers.

The song for the African melody with recitative "Zidane hit him" sold 60,000 copies in just one week after the World Cup final. For Zidane, one of the best players in the history of football, that match with Italy was the last in his brilliant career, and the episode with Materazzi did not stop him from getting the "Golden Ball" as the best player of the World Cup.

Football legends: Zinedine Zidane. The last blow to the head

Finals of the World Cup 2006. Zinedine Zidane and Gianluigi Buffon

To understand the nature of what happened on July 9, 2006 at the 110th minute of the World Cup final, you need to return 25 years ago to the Marseilles district of La Castellan, in the streets of which the immigrant son from Algeria played in his childhood. It was not easy – to grow in the poor quarter of a huge port city, where refugees from the North African wars that France led in the middle of the 20th century found refuge.

It was there, on the streets of La Castellana, Zidane, whose second name Yazid, under which he was more known to peers and first clubmates, mastered the trick now known to any football-playing boy called "Zidane’s feint" – a turn in motion with the ball 360 degrees. This reception in Russian has several names: snail, turntable, roulette. In European languages ​​it is sometimes called "Marseille roulette", because this technique was especially popular in street football of Marseille.

Once and for all having won the right to do with the ball anything, Yazid focused on football. Once at a tournament among the local Mediterranean teams, he saw the scout of the Cannes club Varro. That’s when he was told: "Do not cling to him." And then they added: "Actually, he’s a good guy, a real fighter from street football." Soon Zidane changed the immigrant suburbs of Marseilles to the splendid Croisette in Cannes, on which no longer refugees from North Africa were walking, but real movie stars.

In Cannes, Zidane was lucky. It’s very important that good people come to the path of a talented person from the very bottom. Unfortunately, often the opposite is true, but Zidane was very good: the family of Claude Elino, the head of the team, whom he lived while he was playing for the local club, despite the contemptuous whisper of aristocratic neighbors: "Look, they settled the Arabs at home." Elino’s family took Yazid as their son, and Madame Nicole became the second mother for the future world sport star.

Yes, Zidane is a controversial figure. In 2010, journalist Besma Lauri published a book "Zidane. Secret Life ». In it are given the facts, which, probably, would not very much like to know the fans of the talent of the great football player. But if Zidane had some kind of an account with those who rule this world, Zidane completely paid for it and closed it.

Otherwise, I think he would not have become the first ever coach who managed to win the Champions League twice in a row. Is it not surprising, with all the diversity and the highest class of coaches who, having conquered the top of the Champions League once, having conquered the top of the Champions League, tried to hold onto it, but failed, the first who managed to do so became the rookie coach of Madrid "Real" nicknamed Zizu?

And in the history of the world championships he entered with three blows his head: two on the ball and the goal of the Brazilian national team, which brought France the title of world champions in 1998, and one – in the corps of defender of the Italian national team Marco Materazzi in the 2006 World Cup final. This blow was the last in the career of one of the most talented players in the history of the game, an immigrant from the dangerous harbor streets of Marcel Zinedine Yazid Zidane.

The most awaited wedding of 2018

After the royal wedding of Prince Harry and American actress Megan Markle, the passions subsided. Disputes have ended on the number of guests, the dress of the bride and a solemn buffet table. But how many beautiful couples this year will unite their destinies! And every wedding has its own love story and its own characteristics.

The most awaited wedding of 2018Photo: Legion-Media.ru

"I’m getting married, and it’s your fault," Keith Harrington told the producer of The Game of Thrones. And it is true! The actor’s chosen one was his colleague Rose Leslie. Love on the screen has moved to a real life. And though in the series it all ended very sadly, Keith and Rose prove that in reality everything is different. They have been meeting for five years already, they announced their engagement in September of last year, they promised that the entire film crew of the series "Games of Thrones" should be present at the wedding. Wait for the celebration is not long: the couple will get married on June 23 at the castle in Aberdeenshire, Scotland. The wedding itself will be as close as possible to the atmosphere of your favorite TV series. Guests have already sent invitations with an exclusive stamp – it depicts Keith in the image of John Snow.

The most awaited wedding of 2018

Photo: Legion-Media.ru

His 32nd birthday star of the series "The Big Bang Theory" will remember forever. On this day, she received two sentences. First, in the supermarket, her lover Carl Cook gave her a plastic ring. Kaylee did not appreciate the joke and could not even think that it was just a preparation. The same evening, Cook presented the real ring. Kuoko did not even immediately answer "yes", only cried with happiness. The lovers did not say when the wedding will take place, but some interesting details are already known. The couple are very fond of animals: they have more than 50 horses, six dogs and even five rabbits on the farm. And Kaylee wants to make pets a part of the celebration. How the plans will be implemented is not yet known, but it will be very interesting to look at it. But after a divorce from ex-tennis player Ryan Swift, Kaylee could not even think about ever becoming a bride and wife again. However, the love and care of Carl Cook changed her decision.

After the royal wedding of Prince Harry and American actress Megan Markle, the passions subsided. Disputes have ended on the number of guests, the dress of the bride and a solemn buffet table. But how many beautiful couples this year will unite their destinies! And every wedding has its own love story and its own characteristics.

The most awaited wedding of 2018Photo: Legion-Media.ru

"I’m getting married, and it’s your fault," Keith Harrington told the producer of The Game of Thrones. And it is true! The actor’s chosen one was his colleague Rose Leslie. Love on the screen has moved to a real life. And though in the series it all ended very sadly, Keith and Rose prove that in reality everything is different. They have been meeting for five years already, they announced their engagement in September of last year, they promised that the entire film crew of the series "Games of Thrones" should be present at the wedding. Wait for the celebration is not long: the couple will get married on June 23 at the castle in Aberdeenshire, Scotland. The wedding itself will be as close as possible to the atmosphere of your favorite TV series. Guests have already sent invitations with an exclusive stamp – it depicts Keith in the image of John Snow.

The most awaited wedding of 2018Photo: Legion-Media.ru

After the royal wedding of Prince Harry and American actress Megan Markle, the passions subsided. Disputes have ended on the number of guests, the dress of the bride and a solemn buffet table. But how many beautiful couples this year will unite their destinies! And every wedding has its own love story and its own characteristics.

The most awaited wedding of 2018Photo: Legion-Media.ru

"I’m getting married, and it’s your fault," Keith Harrington told the producer of The Game of Thrones. And it is true! The actor’s chosen one was his colleague Rose Leslie. Love on the screen has moved to a real life. And though in the series it all ended very sadly, Keith and Rose prove that in reality everything is different. They have been meeting for five years already, they announced their engagement in September of last year, they promised that the entire film crew of the series "Games of Thrones" should be present at the wedding. Wait for the celebration is not long: the couple will get married on June 23 at the castle in Aberdeenshire, Scotland. The wedding itself will be as close as possible to the atmosphere of your favorite TV series. Guests have already sent invitations with an exclusive stamp – it depicts Keith in the image of John Snow.

The most awaited wedding of 2018Photo: Legion-Media.ru

His 32nd birthday star of the series "The Big Bang Theory" will remember forever. On this day, she received two sentences. First, in the supermarket, her lover Carl Cook gave her a plastic ring. Kaylee did not appreciate the joke and could not even think that it was just a preparation. The same evening, Cook presented the real ring. Kuoko did not even immediately answer "yes", only cried with happiness. The lovers did not say when the wedding will take place, but some interesting details are already known. The couple are very fond of animals: they have more than 50 horses, six dogs and even five rabbits on the farm. And Kaylee wants to make pets a part of the celebration. How the plans will be implemented is not yet known, but it will be very interesting to look at it. But after a divorce from ex-tennis player Ryan Swift, Kaylee could not even think about ever becoming a bride and wife again. However, the love and care of Carl Cook changed her decision.

After the royal wedding of Prince Harry and American actress Megan Markle, the passions subsided. Disputes have ended on the number of guests, the dress of the bride and a solemn buffet table. But how many beautiful couples this year will unite their destinies! And every wedding has its own love story and its own characteristics.

The most awaited wedding of 2018

Photo: Legion-Media.ru

"I’m getting married, and it’s your fault," Keith Harrington told the producer of The Game of Thrones. And it is true! The actor’s chosen one was his colleague Rose Leslie. Love on the screen has moved to a real life. And though in the series it all ended very sadly, Keith and Rose prove that in reality everything is different. They have been meeting for five years already, they announced their engagement in September of last year, they promised that the entire film crew of the series "Games of Thrones" should be present at the wedding. Wait for the celebration is not long: the couple will get married on June 23 at the castle in Aberdeenshire, Scotland. The wedding itself will be as close as possible to the atmosphere of your favorite TV series. Guests have already sent invitations with an exclusive stamp – it depicts Keith in the image of John Snow.

The most awaited wedding of 2018

Photo: Legion-Media.ru

His 32nd birthday star of the series "The Big Bang Theory" will remember forever. On this day, she received two sentences. First, in the supermarket, her lover Carl Cook gave her a plastic ring. Kaylee did not appreciate the joke and could not even think that it was just a preparation. The same evening, Cook presented the real ring. Kuoko did not even immediately answer "yes", only cried with happiness. The lovers did not say when the wedding will take place, but some interesting details are already known. The couple are very fond of animals: they have more than 50 horses, six dogs and even five rabbits on the farm. And Kaylee wants to make pets a part of the celebration. How the plans will be implemented is not yet known, but it will be very interesting to look at it. But after a divorce from ex-tennis player Ryan Swift, Kaylee could not even think about ever becoming a bride and wife again. However, the love and care of Carl Cook changed her decision.

The most awaited wedding of 2018A photo: GettyImages

"Next to him I feel at 21!" – shares his feelings 45-year-old Gwyneth Paltrow. Such emotions are given to her by her fiancé, script writer Brad Falchuk. For the actress this is the second marriage, before that she was married to the soloist of the group Coldplay Chris Martin. However, Gwyneth said that she considers this wedding as the first: "I’m happy with everything, I’ve never had a wedding before". And she takes it seriously. In the middle of April, Paltrow and Falchuk rented an old theater in Los Angeles, where about 400 guests were invited. Steven Spielberg, Keith Hudson, Cameron Diaz, Jennifer Aniston, Julia Roberts, Liv Tyler and many other Hollywood stars arrived on this day for the celebration. The official version is the betrothal of Gwyneth and Brad, but it was rumored that it was a secret wedding ceremony. But the holiday at the end of the year so far no one has canceled, so that we can still see Gwyneth Paltrow in a luxurious wedding dress.

The most awaited wedding of 2018

Photo: Legion-Media.ru

No one could believe in this event, but it turned out to be true: Paris Hilton is getting married. Her chosen one was the actor and model Chris Zilki. They started dating in 2016, and at the end of 2017, Chris made a favorite offer. Now in their lives a new stage begins, and Paris wants everything to go perfectly. At the ceremony the bride will look like a Disney princess, and for the dinner another outfit is prepared, the author of which is Jeremy Scott. Preparation for the celebration Paris entrusted her mother: Cathy Hilton – a famous wedding steward. It is already known that the design will be with fantastic motives: unicorns, rabbits and fairy Dinh-Dinh. The wedding will take place in the church where the bride’s parents married. Lovers decided on the date: the celebration will be held on November 11, 2018. For the sake of her lover, Chris will even accept Catholicism.

The most awaited wedding of 2018Photo: Legion-Media.ru

Relationships of this pair can be called non-standard. For the first time in public, they appeared together after the engagement was announced, but no details about the upcoming celebration are reported. The surrounding only note that the singer looks happy next to Christian, and the agent himself is very determined. He even made a tattoo on his hand with Stephanie’s face (real name Lady Gaga). Fans hope that lovers will still find time for a wedding this year. After all, one engagement of the singer has already broken: because of the tight schedule, she broke off relations with actor Taylor Kinney. On the other hand, Christian, as an agent of Lady Gaga, is always next to the singer. And, perhaps, lovers will not want to arrange a magnificent celebration, but will swap their oaths right during the next tour.

The most awaited wedding of 2018Photo: Legion-Media.ru

The most enviable British bachelors decided to finally disappoint their fans. At the end of 2017, the popular singer Ed Sheeran announced his engagement. His choice was a simple girl Cherry Seaborn, with whom they studied together at school. However, Cherry for a long time considered Ed only a friend, and they met only in 2015. Probably, the girl is very sorry that she lost so much time, because Ed was not only talented, but also very romantic. The singer wants to build his own chapel, and to invite Beyoncé to the celebration, because their joint song "Perfect" is dedicated to his "cherry". A special company specializes in holidays with an unlimited budget. By all accounts, this wedding may well overshadow itself and the royal feast of Prince Harry and Megan Markle. Especially since Ed really wants to be the best pair in Cherry’s history.

The most awaited wedding of 2018

A photo: GettyImages

The heavy divorce, scandals with the former husband, creative crisis and failures in career – all this has thwarted former pop-star Britney Spears. But today, it seems, the singer came back to normal. She acts in advertising projects, rehearses the show, and most importantly – prepares for a new wedding! The third husband of 35-year-old Britney was 24-year-old Sam Asgari. The couple have been together for over a year, and Sam’s proposal was made in December 2017. When exactly the long-awaited celebration will take place, it is still unknown, but Britney prepares for him very actively: in her Instagram constantly appear video and pictures, as she trains with the groom. And, I must admit, the singer looks great! We hope that happiness will not be hindered either by the prohibitions of the father (Jamie Spears is inclined against his daughter’s chosen one), or the gossip of envious persons. Especially since the girl really wants to become a mother for the third time and give birth to a beloved daughter.

Photo: Legion-Media.ru

Many still do not believe in the reality of these relations, they say that all this is a PR. And it’s hard not to agree with the arguments. The message about the future wedding sounded suddenly, and not from the lovers themselves, but from their witness Ramzan Kadyrov. Then the transfer of the celebration: on October 5, Nicholas’s grandfather died, so his mother asked to change the date. But only Baskova and Lopyrev are seen less and less together. The singer explains this by guest relations and a busy schedule of work. At the same time, Nikolai actively discusses future children and has already made a marriage contract. In any case, the wedding will not take place before July: Victoria is the Ambassador of FIFA and is involved in many events of the upcoming World Cup. The bride, however, somehow joked: the wedding will take place only if the Russian team wins. How true this joke turns out, we will find out very soon.

Interviews | Simon Townsend (The Who): “Performance at the Olympics in London is the main achievement of my career”

For more than half a century the backbone of The Who, one of the greatest groups in the world, is the mighty duo of Roger Daltrey and Peter Townsend. Not always the attention of the press and fans is focused on other musicians who appear on stage during the show Who, but now it is such a unique case. Rock Cult talked with Simon Townsend – the multi-year tour guitarist of the band, Peter’s brother and a man from an early childhood in the inner "kitchen" of the legendary band.

Rock Cult: The first question will be about your solo career. Tell us about your recent album Denial, will you be touring with his material on Russia or the surrounding countries? Do we have a chance to hear it live?

Simon: Yes, there is a chance. I just had a new manager working with other regions (except Great Britain), opportunities … So yeah, the chances are really great.

Rock Cult: A lot of people are waiting not to wait, when it will be possible to hear it live, so we hope to see you here.

Simon: Well, The Who, I suppose, too.

Rock Cult: The Who began their careers when you were only four years old, did not they? You were a very small boy. Has your brother, his career, become a source of inspiration for you, or have you become a musician for some other reason?

Simon: Well, he really influenced me a little, my whole family became a source of inspiration for me in the field of music. After all, my father was a musician, my mother sang well, well, Pete, of course, too. So we had musical rooms, pianos and guitars. Around us there were many ways of access to music, so she came to me naturally.

Rock Cult: So, you have not considered any other profession? You did not want to become anyone else, except a musician?

Simon: No, what you! I was fond of football when I was a kid. But what I did not like about football was training. I did football, but not too much. In the end, I took a step towards music – it was easier. It’s easier to fix what you know.

Rock Cult: You have worked with many bands and musicians besides The Who: for example, Pearl Jam or Dave Grohl. Are you dreaming of working with someone else? Or maybe you already have any plans?

Simon: I would like to play with Stevie Wonder.

Rock Cult: Wow!

Simon: You know, he was a legend of my childhood, my favorite performer. So I really would like to work with him. I also love Paul Weller, I would like to do something with him. And Peter Gabriel. Do you know Peter Gabriel?

Rock Cult: Yes, of course.

For more than half a century the backbone of The Who, one of the greatest groups in the world, is the mighty duo of Roger Daltrey and Peter Townsend. Not always the attention of the press and fans is focused on other musicians who appear on stage during the show Who, but now it is such a unique case. Rock Cult talked with Simon Townsend – the multi-year tour guitarist of the band, Peter’s brother and a man from an early childhood in the inner "kitchen" of the legendary band.

Rock Cult: The first question will be about your solo career. Tell us about your recent album Denial, will you be touring with his material on Russia or the surrounding countries? Do we have a chance to hear it live?

Simon: Yes, there is a chance. I just had a new manager working with other regions (except Great Britain), opportunities … So yeah, the chances are really great.

Rock Cult: A lot of people are waiting not to wait, when it will be possible to hear it live, so we hope to see you here.

Simon: Well, The Who, I suppose, too.

Rock Cult: The Who began their careers when you were only four years old, did not they? You were a very small boy. Has your brother, his career, become a source of inspiration for you, or have you become a musician for some other reason?

Simon: Well, he really influenced me a little, my whole family became a source of inspiration for me in the field of music. After all, my father was a musician, my mother sang well, well, Pete, of course, too. So we had musical rooms, pianos and guitars. Around us there were many ways of access to music, so she came to me naturally.

Rock Cult: So, you have not considered any other profession? You did not want to become anyone else, except a musician?

Simon: No, what you! I was fond of football when I was a kid. But what I did not like about football was training. I did football, but not too much. In the end, I took a step towards music – it was easier. It’s easier to fix what you know.

Rock Cult: You have worked with many bands and musicians besides The Who: for example, Pearl Jam or Dave Grohl. Are you dreaming of working with someone else? Or maybe you already have any plans?

Simon: I would like to play with Stevie Wonder.

Rock Cult: Wow!

Simon: You know, he was a legend of my childhood, my favorite performer. So I really would like to work with him. I also love Paul Weller, I would like to do something with him. And Peter Gabriel. Do you know Peter Gabriel?

Rock Cult: Yes, of course.

Simon: It would be an interesting collaboration.

Interviews | Simon Townsend (The Who): "Performance at the Olympics in London is the main achievement of my career"

Rock Cult: Do you listen to any new bands that are popular at the moment?

For more than half a century the backbone of The Who, one of the greatest groups in the world, is the mighty duo of Roger Daltrey and Peter Townsend. Not always the attention of the press and fans is focused on other musicians who appear on stage during the show Who, but now it is such a unique case. Rock Cult talked with Simon Townsend – the multi-year tour guitarist of the band, Peter’s brother and a man from an early childhood in the inner "kitchen" of the legendary band.

Rock Cult: The first question will be about your solo career. Tell us about your recent album Denial, will you be touring with his material on Russia or the surrounding countries? Do we have a chance to hear it live?

Simon: Yes, there is a chance. I just had a new manager working with other regions (except Great Britain), opportunities … So yeah, the chances are really great.

Rock Cult: A lot of people are waiting not to wait, when it will be possible to hear it live, so we hope to see you here.

Simon: Well, The Who, I suppose, too.

Rock Cult: The Who began their careers when you were only four years old, did not they? You were a very small boy. Has your brother, his career, become a source of inspiration for you, or have you become a musician for some other reason?

Simon: Well, he really influenced me a little, my whole family became a source of inspiration for me in the field of music. After all, my father was a musician, my mother sang well, well, Pete, of course, too. So we had musical rooms, pianos and guitars. Around us there were many ways of access to music, so she came to me naturally.

Rock Cult: So, you have not considered any other profession? You did not want to become anyone else, except a musician?

Simon: No, what you! I was fond of football when I was a kid. But what I did not like about football was training. I did football, but not too much. In the end, I took a step towards music – it was easier. It’s easier to fix what you know.

Rock Cult: You have worked with many bands and musicians besides The Who: for example, Pearl Jam or Dave Grohl. Are you dreaming of working with someone else? Or maybe you already have any plans?

Simon: I would like to play with Stevie Wonder.

Rock Cult: Wow!

Simon: You know, he was a legend of my childhood, my favorite performer. So I really would like to work with him. I also love Paul Weller, I would like to do something with him. And Peter Gabriel. Do you know Peter Gabriel?

Rock Cult: Yes, of course.

For more than half a century the backbone of The Who, one of the greatest groups in the world, is the mighty duo of Roger Daltrey and Peter Townsend. Not always the attention of the press and fans is focused on other musicians who appear on stage during the show Who, but now it is such a unique case. Rock Cult talked with Simon Townsend – the multi-year tour guitarist of the band, Peter’s brother and a man from an early childhood in the inner "kitchen" of the legendary band.

Rock Cult: The first question will be about your solo career. Tell us about your recent album Denial, will you be touring with his material on Russia or the surrounding countries? Do we have a chance to hear it live?

Simon: Yes, there is a chance. I just had a new manager working with other regions (except Great Britain), opportunities … So yeah, the chances are really great.

Rock Cult: A lot of people are waiting not to wait, when it will be possible to hear it live, so we hope to see you here.

Simon: Well, The Who, I suppose, too.

Rock Cult: The Who began their careers when you were only four years old, did not they? You were a very small boy. Has your brother, his career, become a source of inspiration for you, or have you become a musician for some other reason?

Simon: Well, he really influenced me a little, my whole family became a source of inspiration for me in the field of music. After all, my father was a musician, my mother sang well, well, Pete, of course, too. So we had musical rooms, pianos and guitars. Around us there were many ways of access to music, so she came to me naturally.

Rock Cult: So, you have not considered any other profession? You did not want to become anyone else, except a musician?

Simon: No, what you! I was fond of football when I was a kid. But what I did not like about football was training. I did football, but not too much. In the end, I took a step towards music – it was easier. It’s easier to fix what you know.

Rock Cult: You have worked with many bands and musicians besides The Who: for example, Pearl Jam or Dave Grohl. Are you dreaming of working with someone else? Or maybe you already have any plans?

Simon: I would like to play with Stevie Wonder.

Rock Cult: Wow!

Simon: You know, he was a legend of my childhood, my favorite performer. So I really would like to work with him. I also love Paul Weller, I would like to do something with him. And Peter Gabriel. Do you know Peter Gabriel?

Rock Cult: Yes, of course.

Simon: It would be an interesting collaboration.

Interviews | Simon Townsend (The Who): "Performance at the Olympics in London is the main achievement of my career"

Rock Cult: Do you listen to any new bands that are popular at the moment?

Simon: Maybe … Well, if I need to choose, I would like to work with Kasabian, because, in my opinion, they are the closest to the groups of my time. You see, from my point of view there is not much quality in music now. That is, modern technologies have made the recording process too simple. Around so much shit … So much rubbish … But Kasabian is a good band, remembering its origins. I like them. Are they popular in Russia?

Rock Cult: Yes, very. They have been with us several times.

Simon: They are very popular in Europe. Probably, in America they are not loved so much, but they are an excellent company of excellent guys.

Rock Cult: About a year and a half ago there were rumors that a new album The Who. Is there any work on it? Maybe there are already some dates?

Simon: We have not started the recording yet, although Pete has stuff. So I think that there is a possibility of releasing the album next year. New album. But this probability largely depends on Sir Roger (Daltrey, note author) Sir Roger was recently ill, and we even had to postpone the recent tour.

Rock Cult: Tell us a little about how The Who played at the closing ceremony of the 2012 Olympic Games. In your opinion, what are the main differences between an ordinary stadium concert and a performance at the Olympics?

Simon: It was a special concert, because London is my hometown. So to play there … Just one month before all this happened, I did not even suspect that I could perform at the Olympics. That was incredible. It’s an incredible honor to be a part of it all. I was delighted! Perhaps, this is the main achievement of my career. I enjoyed every second of the process! Such an honor! I think that every person who has crossed the 50-year mark must look back and find in his life some such great event.

Rock Cult: Terrific! Now many bands make covers of The songs Who. Surely you have heard some of them, are there any among them that you like?

Simon: The ones that I like? I must say that I really like the version of Behind Blue Eyes from … Oh … What are they called? …

Simon: Repeat, please.

Rock Cult: Limp Bizkit, they are called Limp Bizkit.

Simon: Exactly, Limp Bizkit! I love this version, but I’m pretty sure that they did not really understand it. They changed the words, making them more accessible. I would not like that. But after living with these thoughts for a while, I came to the conclusion that it really worked. I liked their version. And I also like the version Summertime Blues from Joan Jett.

Rock Cult: This year marks the 40th anniversary of The film Who "Tommy". You played it in childhood, did not you? Could you tell us some interesting episodes that you remember from the filming process or from the time when the film has already been released?

Simon: Oh, I was very small when we did all this. I was probably about seven years old, and I was in the studio with my other brother, Paul. We began to play a little, it was already dark, and it was already time for us to be home. Then Pete did not appear so often in our lives. That’s why it was incredibly great when Pete finally joined us, and even right in the London studio. It was very cool. And then Pete says: "Do you want to try to record your voice?" And I generally did not really sing in the studio. I never put headphones on my head, and I never heard my voice from the microphone. So for a kid of my age it was an incredible experience. Pete praised me, turned on the second track and asked me to sing again over the first take, keeping the same timbre – and I did it cleanly. Everyone liked how I sang – that’s how it all began for me. In the studio, in the episode "Tommy" "Smash The Mirror". I sang "Rise Rise Rise …", because no other voice could reach such high notes.

Rock Cult: It’s great. Well, that was my last question. I know that not so long ago, October 10 was your birthday, so – happy birthday! And thank you for spending some time with me!

Simon: Thank you very much, I really appreciate it! Always please, I myself am very happy. Thank you!

Interviewed Lana Alterova and Ivan Balashov

Interviews | Simon Townsend (The Who): "Performance at the Olympics in London is the main achievement of my career"

Les Hallerbos – a fabulous dream in reality

Les Hallerbos - a fabulous dream in reality

In a small European country Belgium, just south of Brussels, there is a real fairy tale forest – Hallerbos. Everyone who ever sees the beauty of this place will immediately believe in fairy tales.

Les Hallerbos - a fabulous dream in reality

In a small European country Belgium, just south of Brussels, there is a real fairy tale forest – Hallerbos. Everyone who ever sees the beauty of this place will immediately believe in fairy tales.

Grown on the site of a centuries-old beech forest, virtually destroyed in World War II (although some specimens have since been found here), and occupying an area of ​​five and a half square kilometers, Hallerbos has a unique flora. Every year, in a rather short period of time, namely from the end of April to the beginning of May, billions of billions of flowers bloom here – wild hyacinths (they are also mouse hyacinths), in our country they are called viper onions or bells – having all kinds of shades of blue.

Les Hallerbos - a fabulous dream in reality

So these plants cover an amazing carpet with magnificent and unique patterns of the whole forest. During this period, many residents of the country and visitors visit Hallerbos for walks, either on foot, horse or bicycle, for there are paths and routes for them. By the way, all the tracks have either an asphalt covering, or are strewn with chips, so even in rainy weather it’s quite comfortable walking in the woods. Visitors can admire the flower patterns of ultramarine color, circling around trees, framing paths and rivulets. It is especially impressive to observe this unique beauty in the pre-dawn period, when there are still very few young green leaves on the trees through which the first sunrise rays of the sun make their way, and the hazy night haze has not yet come down – that’s when you can feel yourself in a real fairy forest.

Les Hallerbos - a fabulous dream in reality

Les Hallerbos - a fabulous dream in reality

It will begin to seem that just around the tree will appear some fairy creature – a kikimora, hurrying about their business, or mischievous elves who have arranged a boy’s bouzou. The blue forest, as Hallerbos is called, fascinates anyone, even a very skeptical traveler. And on children of any age in general makes an indelible impression. Believe me, it’s really worth seeing, it’s impossible to describe, and even the most imaginative imagination is unable to create images even roughly similar to what you’ll see in Hallerbos.

Les Hallerbos - a fabulous dream in reality

BJD DOLLS. Jointed doll …

Published by website user

Published by website user

Beauty

Jointed doll (ball-jointed doll, BJD) doll in the form of a human figure, a distinctive feature of which is the presence of a movable articulated joints of the body parts in place of the joints, which allows a doll to take any posture similar to the postures of the human body. All parts of the body are held together, due to the rubber cords.

BJD DOLLS. Jointed doll ...

Published by website user

Beauty

Jointed doll (ball-jointed doll, BJD) doll in the form of a human figure, a distinctive feature of which is the presence of a movable articulated joints of the body parts in place of the joints, which allows a doll to take any posture similar to the postures of the human body. All parts of the body are held together, due to the rubber cords.

BJD DOLLS. Jointed doll ...

Articulated dolls have been known in 200 BC, they existed in Greece and were made of clay and wood. But the modern history of these dolls originated in 1930, when the German artist Hans Bellmer created dolls with large hinges and used them in their dark photographs and other surrealist works.

BJD DOLLS. Jointed doll ...

BJD DOLLS. Jointed doll ...

BJD DOLLS. Jointed doll ...

Bellmer introduced the idea of ​​the art of photography of dolls, which is inherited today by Japanese artists and BJD-fans. Influenced by Bellmer, Japanese artists began to create "their" stretched elastic jointed dolls.

BJD DOLLS. Jointed doll ...

BJD DOLLS. Jointed doll ...

Their joints are movable, and the size of these dolls reach 120 cm BJD dolls from our usual dolls are distinguished by the material and the complexity of the technology of their creation. They are not made of plastic, and polyurethane resins and porcelain. This compound is more fragile, heavier, as it is much more pleasant to the touch. Some firms can obtain such a formula of polyurethane that, when touched it leaves a feeling of the real skin.

BJD DOLLS. Jointed doll ...

Many companies that sell them, buy the body, head, hands and feet, to pick up wig and eyes, choose the makeup, then clothes and accessories. Thus, it is possible to collect and make your individual doll. The owners of BJD can change their dolls almost everything.

BJD DOLLS. Jointed doll ...

BJD DOLLS. Jointed doll ...

BJD DOLLS. Jointed doll ...

Some firms claim that BJD-doll is not a toy for children. Because of this, many do not understand why do you buy this doll? Already here it should be noted that the owners of ball-jointed men are mainly artists, designers, photographers, sculptors and collectors. They really appreciate their beauty, fragility and refinement. For them, these dolls are part of the art. The owners actively take photos of their BJD dolls, give them certain images, stories and legends. Artists regularly release artbook their dolls. Collectors also have a hard time. The cost of the doll varies from a few thousand to several hundred thousand dollars. Also, fans of BJD has its own community, online forums and chats.

BJD DOLLS. Jointed doll ...

BJD DOLLS. Jointed doll ...

BJD DOLLS. Jointed doll ...

BJD DOLLS. Jointed doll ...

"Doll is emptiness. Their bodies and hearts full vacuum. This emptiness is like death."

BJD DOLLS. Jointed doll ...

"Some are attractive, like the Mona Lisa, with a constant polymesh. If you’re not watching them, and they are for you …"

BJD DOLLS. Jointed doll ...

"I would like to play with dolls. Doll moves as you want … Saying whatever you want … And if it breaks you throw it away!"

BJD DOLLS. Jointed doll ...

"Dolls do not feel anything."

BJD DOLLS. Jointed doll ...

BJD DOLLS. Jointed doll ...

"People like dolls. Interesting, yet new."

BJD DOLLS. Jointed doll ...

BJD DOLLS. Jointed doll ...

"There are only puppets and puppeteers. Or you’re or you are … "

BJD DOLLS. Jointed doll ...

BJD DOLLS. Jointed doll ...

"Dolls … they’re empty. They have empty body and soul. And the emptiness brings them closer to death. For all things are empty in nature craves filling."

"The man differs from animals? When the game ends, it’s just the doll clean in box."

Sergei Ursulyak turns 60

Today, June 10th, notes the 60-the famous Russian director, screenwriter, producer, actor and TV host Sergey Ursulyak.

Sergei Ursulyak turns 60

Sergey Vladimirovich Ursulyak was born June 10, 1958 year in Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky. In 1979 he graduated from the acting department of the Theater School named after B.V. Shchukin (workshop Evgenia Simonova), in 1993 – VKSR (workshop Vladimir Motyl). From 1979 to 1991 he served as an actor in the "Satyricone", where he played Chatsky in the play "Woe from Wit". Director of the TV show Dog Show "Me and my dog", documentary cycle "The Newest History", filmmaker in the play Satire Theater "Andryusha". For some time he was the host of the TV program about actors "The motley ribbon".

The directorial debut of Ursulyak took place in 1993 – he staged a social drama "Russian Ragtime". Then followed "Summer People", "Composition for the Victory Day", "Poirot’s failure" and "Long Farewell", but real fame came to him after staging a popular series "Liquidation", released in 2007. Since then, the director prefers to create many-hour paintings ("Isaev", "Life and destiny", "Quiet Flows the Don"). At the moment working on the adaptation of the novel Alexei Ivanov’s "Fate".

He is the recipient of numerous awards, among which there are two prizes of Kinotavr, three Golden Eagles, two Niki, Tafi and others. Married to actress Lika Nifontova. His daughter Alexandra and Daria are also actresses.

Modern cuisine: 3 trends, 33 examples

Modern cuisine: 3 trends, 33 examples

Modern cuisine: 3 trends, 33 examples

The layout of the kitchen, combined with the living room and dining room, is still relevant. Manufacturers of kitchen furniture are sensitive to this demand, and the kitchen design is indistinguishable from the living room furniture.

Modern cuisine: 3 trends, 33 examples

The layout of the kitchen, combined with the living room and dining room, is still relevant. Manufacturers of kitchen furniture are sensitive to this demand, and the kitchen design is indistinguishable from the living room furniture.

Modern cuisine: 3 trends, 33 examples

Designer Didier Gomez. View from the dining room to the kitchen.

Modern cuisine: 3 trends, 33 examplesThe custom-made kitchen and refrigerator are covered with polished gold leaf. Paired black ceramic vases, diz. Dal’Olio. The chairs of the 1930s.

Modern cuisine: 3 trends, 33 examples

Designer Mike Shilov. In the flock wallpaper Rubelli looks effectively photo A. Julien. The dining room and kitchen are designed according to R. Dordoni’s design – for Minotti and Ernestomeda.

Modern cuisine: 3 trends, 33 examplesDesigner Olga Mal’eva. The kitchen is combined with the living room and is located on both sides of the entrance. Kitchen modules Leicht look like luxurious chests of drawers.

Modern cuisine: 3 trends, 33 examplesThe kitchen is an organic component of the front half of the house. Designed by designer Olga Amlinskaya specifically for the apartment.

Modern cuisine: 3 trends, 33 examplesThe author of the project is Vyacheslav Khomutov. Kitchen – an organic continuation of the front half of the house. Kitchen furniture Varenna / Poliform.

Modern cuisine: 3 trends, 33 examplesDesjeux Delaye. Associations with expensive suites enhance the finishing materials: Carrara marble, brass inserts, velvet upholstery, fine wood veneers.

The layout with the island is popular. Often it is combined with a bar counter, parallel to it or perpendicular. It is a good idea to place the built-in vertical columns with appliances and showcases separately from the horizontals of the lower bases.

Trend miniliving gives rise to a new approach to space design. Now the kitchen is able to fit in the closet, while retaining the functionality. Modern technology hides behind the facades and even integrates into the countertop. For example, the kitchen hood can be built into the lower cabinets, especially the space above the hob.

Vera Brezhnev met her daughter on vacation

Vera Brezhnev met her daughter on vacationSvetlana Khodchenkova flirts on the red carpet

32-year-old singer and actress Vera Brezhneva grows two daughters. Her eldest daughter Sonya recently left for the first time with her mother, and the youngest daughter Sarah prefers not to get into camera lenses.

The press invariably releases reports that another child will soon appear in Brezhnev’s family. The reason for such statements is often the outfits of a free cut that Vera herself loves so much.

Apparently, such statements finally tired of the ex-member of the group "VIA Gra" and she first decided to comment on them. The singer published a new photo on her page in Instagram, ironically signing it: "Gossips !! Calm down already! Have got !! I’m NOT PREGNANT, I’m just FAT. " Of course, the numerous subscribers of the star could not but react to this message. Faith was immediately assured that her figure was perfect, and girls always tend to exaggerate their volumes.

Recall that previously in an exclusive interview with the magazine "7 days" the famous singer told that she was ready to become a mother again. >>

It’s so important that Geniuses are known, recognized, loved, honored and appreciated in life !!! It is a great honor for me to live with such people at the same time. Have the opportunity to observe their creativity. One of them is TheodorCurentsis. Music. Talent. Courage. Originality. Genius. Thank you for being, Theodore. Thank you for the inspiration. #musicaeterna is the Cosmos !! BRAVO!!!!!!!! # music music # conservatory #teodorkurentzis # conductor

A post shared by Vera Brezhneva? (@ververa) on Feb 10, 2018 at 8:48 am PST

Vera Brezhnev met her daughter on vacationSvetlana Khodchenkova flirts on the red carpet

32-year-old singer and actress Vera Brezhneva grows two daughters. Her eldest daughter Sonya recently left for the first time with her mother, and the youngest daughter Sarah prefers not to get into camera lenses.

The press invariably releases reports that another child will soon appear in Brezhnev’s family. The reason for such statements is often the outfits of a free cut that Vera herself loves so much.

Apparently, such statements finally tired of the ex-member of the group "VIA Gra" and she first decided to comment on them. The singer published a new photo on her page in Instagram, ironically signing it: "Gossips !! Calm down already! Have got !! I’m NOT PREGNANT, I’m just FAT. " Of course, the numerous subscribers of the star could not but react to this message. Faith was immediately assured that her figure was perfect, and girls always tend to exaggerate their volumes.

Recall that previously in an exclusive interview with the magazine "7 days" the famous singer told that she was ready to become a mother again. >>

It’s so important that Geniuses are known, recognized, loved, honored and appreciated in life !!! It is a great honor for me to live with such people at the same time. Have the opportunity to observe their creativity. One of them is TheodorCurentsis. Music. Talent. Courage. Originality. Genius. Thank you for being, Theodore. Thank you for the inspiration. #musicaeterna is the Cosmos !! BRAVO!!!!!!!! # music music # conservatory #teodorkurentzis # conductor

A post shared by Vera Brezhneva? (@ververa) on Feb 10, 2018 at 8:48 am PST

Usually the positive and benevolent Faith of Brezhnev fell to the web users. The actress gave hard rebuff to the hayters who "attacked" her on a personal page in Instagram. It all started with the publication of a joint photo with the conductor of Greek origin Theodor Curentzis, whom she had visited recently. The frame caused an inexplicable aggression from the users of the Network: "Scary. The erysipelas old as a boot! Singing can not even see you can not "," We decided to communicate with normal music, otherwise there are three clogs near the two pritop. It’s fashionable now for representatives of pop music to go to Curentzisa, like they also understand something in music, "" All for show. Nauseated by this, "" How tenderly you cling to him, is he, by the way, married? ".

Vera Brezhnev met her daughter on vacationSvetlana Khodchenkova flirts on the red carpet

32-year-old singer and actress Vera Brezhneva grows two daughters. Her eldest daughter Sonya recently left for the first time with her mother, and the youngest daughter Sarah prefers not to get into camera lenses.

The press invariably releases reports that another child will soon appear in Brezhnev’s family. The reason for such statements is often the outfits of a free cut that Vera herself loves so much.

Apparently, such statements finally tired of the ex-member of the group "VIA Gra" and she first decided to comment on them. The singer published a new photo on her page in Instagram, ironically signing it: "Gossips !! Calm down already! Have got !! I’m NOT PREGNANT, I’m just FAT. " Of course, the numerous subscribers of the star could not but react to this message. Faith was immediately assured that her figure was perfect, and girls always tend to exaggerate their volumes.

Recall that previously in an exclusive interview with the magazine "7 days" the famous singer told that she was ready to become a mother again. >>

It’s so important that Geniuses are known, recognized, loved, honored and appreciated in life !!! It is a great honor for me to live with such people at the same time. Have the opportunity to observe their creativity. One of them is TheodorCurentsis. Music. Talent. Courage. Originality. Genius. Thank you for being, Theodore. Thank you for the inspiration. #musicaeterna is the Cosmos !! BRAVO!!!!!!!! # music music # conservatory #teodorkurentzis # conductor

A post shared by Vera Brezhneva? (@ververa) on Feb 10, 2018 at 8:48 am PST

Usually the positive and benevolent Faith of Brezhnev fell to the web users. The actress gave hard rebuff to the hayters who "attacked" her on a personal page in Instagram. It all started with the publication of a joint photo with the conductor of Greek origin Theodor Curentzis, whom she had visited recently. The frame caused an inexplicable aggression from the users of the Network: "Scary. The erysipelas old as a boot! Singing can not even see you can not "," We decided to communicate with normal music, otherwise there are three clogs near the two pritop. It’s fashionable now for representatives of pop music to go to Curentzisa, like they also understand something in music, "" All for show. Nauseated by this, "" How tenderly you cling to him, is he, by the way, married? ".

Vera was unpleasantly surprised by the reaction of her subscribers. She entered into a verbal skirmish with them, but it only got worse, because they, in turn, switched to gross insults. In her next publication, Brezhnev appealed to those who offended her.

"People. What’s wrong with you. How much negativity you pour out. How many nastiness you write on the Internet all in a row. Indiscriminately. Come to your senses. Wake up. You form your life with these words. Own world. So it becomes. Do you like to live in d … me. Do you really think that writing a negative comment makes you higher and your life better? You just prove your point. Your level. Its the limit. "And who are the judges?" It is good to do good. Truth! "- wrote Vera.

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